Wild Signs and Star Paths – Full Book INDEX

Tristan Gooley

Below is a full index from the book Wild Signs and Star Paths.

(Published as The Nature Instinct in the USA.)


WILD SIGNS AND STAR PATHS

Index

Aajuuk (stars) 249
Aboriginals 15, 179, 282, 297, 322, 327–28, 331
Achille (gorilla) 314–15
acid rain 97
Ackerman, Jennifer 305
aeons 242
Aesop 318
Africa 149, 162, 177, 194, 241, 270, 277, 282–3, 326, 332–3
Age of Reason 16
aggression 63–4, 134, 154, 295
Agia Galini, Crete 34
Agiuppiniq 257
agriculture 101–2, 247, 270, 279, 332
Ainu people 316
air
humidity 55–6, 242
pollution 97
thermals 186, 187
aircraft 87, 88, 207, 215, 289
airports 86, 87
alarm calls 69, 131, 151, 172–78, 209–10, 309
Alaska 87, 169, 193–4, 328
alcohol 123–4
Aldebaran 238, 249
alder trees 114, 245
Aldhelm 75
Alexander the Great 251
allelomimesis 206
Alluetais people 331–2
Almería 64
almond blossom 64
Altair 38
altocumulus lenticularis 88
Amazon 35, 40, 258, 265, 328
amphibians 134, 170
ampullae of Lorenzini 304
amygdalae 39–40
Anaximander 303
ancient brain 39–40
Androsthenes 251
anemones, wood 195, 244
animals
alarm calls 172–178
associations of behaviours 68, 69
camouflage 148–150
character traits 294–299
circling 184–88
cognition 294–299
communication 168–78
crouching 150–1
direction of alignment 138–40
domestic animals 272–5
and eddies 227–8
and edges 101–2
expressions 134–7
feigning death 152
flight 153–63, 165–6
flocks 199–208
folklore 317–23
forecasting tsunamis 46, 69
the freeze 148–50, 152, 311
gaze 135–6, 275
and hedges 101–2
identifying 267–68
the ignore 223–5
injuries 120
jinking 212–17
learning 292–3
limbic system 39
the mistake 225
moodiness 296–7
nocturnal animals 89
predator detection 311–13
predicting behaviour 276, 281–3, 290
psychic abilities 304–5
recognition of shapes 61
refuges 164–7
the return 130–1
routines 254
search images 307
self-medication 124
sentinels 128–130
the shimmy 218–22
signs of 66, 105–10
signs of illness 123–4
sixth sense 16
sleep 255
social rankings 296
territory 210–11
theory of mind 302
and time 250–1
tool-users 292
tracking 5, 50, 179–83
trickery 314–16, 317
Umwelt 300–13
vantage points 127–29
vigilance 142–5, 148, 150, 154–5
and the wind 50–1
in woodland 96–7
zoosemiotics 58, 59
see also individual species
Anishinaabe people 239
annual plants 248
anomalies 65
anomalous trees 116–18
Antarctic 145
antelopes 137, 174, 277, 281
anthropocentrism 302–3, 309
anthropomorphism 302–3, 306
antibiotics 123
ants 168, 258, 303, 318, 328–9, 330
aptitudes 294
Aquila (constellation) 249
Arabia 278
archangel, yellow 244, 272
Arctic 87, 145, 188, 194, 204, 319–20
Aristotle 271, 276, 320
art 319
arum 114
Arun, river 263
Arundel 138, 139
ash dieback 122
ash trees 95, 107, 113, 119, 121, 122, 245, 267
aspect, and light 112–13
aspen trees 95
associations 67–9, 328–30
asters 249
Audubon, John James 319
Australia 293
Australian Aboriginals 15, 179, 282, 297, 322, 327–8, 331
Australian magpie 135–6
Avila Runa people 258

babbler, black-faced 277
baboons 137
bacteria 57, 122, 123
badgers 99, 135, 204, 251, 307, 310
fights 44
hearing 304
and hedges 101
honey-guide bird and 194
jinking 215
setts 182, 329–30
territory 210
tracks 181
Bailey, Clinton 193
Baniwa Indians 328
bark
age of 244–5
lichens on 98
silver birch 123
stripping 106
sun scald 122–3
barn owls 128
Bartlett, Harley Harris 327
Basel zoo 314–15
Baskett, David 6–7
bats 67, 169, 258, 302
echolocation 311
flocks 206
folklore 319
jinking 216
sleep 255
Bavaria 116
BBC 3–4
bears 134, 145, 169, 180, 245, 303–4
beavers 169, 170
Bedouin 41, 55, 90, 192–3, 247, 249, 265, 278
beech trees 97, 111, 113
fungi growing on 121
identifying 267, 268
leaves 250
nuts 256–7
organisms on 116
sound of 95
beech woodwart 121
bees 250
Butler’s study of 271–2
carnivorous flies and 315
dance 170–1
distinguishing Picasso from Monet 293
inner clock 254
pessimism 296
predicting behaviour 310–11
beetles 315
betulin 123
biennial plants 248
bindweed 121
biotope 325
birch trees 113, 121, 123
birds
age of 245
alarm calls 35, 40, 69, 151, 172–78, 209–10, 309
aptitudes 294
body language 19–20
the bubble 202–3
circling 185–7, 188
communication 170–3
crouching 151
dawn chorus 196, 238, 239, 252–4, 267
dead birds 120
fear bradycardia 151
finding water 270
the flight 154–63
flocks 206–8
the freeze 148, 149, 150
gaze 135–6
as guides 193, 194
habitats 326–7
in hedges 129
identifying 62–4, 142, 265–7, 268
identifying food 306–7
the ignore 225
jinking 214–17
‘jizz’ 266
the mistake 225
nests 193, 200, 330
patterns of motion 213
pecking order 202–3
perception bubbles 304
predator detection 311–12
predicting behaviour 276
refuges 166
sentinels 128–9
shape recognition 61–2
the shimmy 219–22
signs of illness 124
singing 95, 303
squall squawk 196
tails 137
territory 210, 211, 215–16, 229, 295
and time 240–1, 250
tracks 180, 181–2
trickery 314, 315
vigilance 142–5, 156–58
vision 305
and the wind 50–1
see also individual species
birds of prey 120
avoidance tactics 163, 172
identifying 61–2
and the ignore 225
rooks and 330
shrikes and 177
soaring 87
territory 211
vantage points 219
see also individual species
bitterns 148, 267
Black Down, Sussex 341
blackbirds 147, 177, 240
calls 168, 178, 187, 220, 253
identifying 142
predicting behaviour 276
sentinels 128
the shimmy 220
signs of maturity 245
squall squawk 196
vigilance 144
blackcaps 142, 239, 253
blackthorn 116, 165, 250
blenchers 216
blenny fish 315
blue tits 161, 162–3, 265–6
bluebells 240, 329–30
boar, wild 194, 257, 283
boats, sailing 84
body language 62
birds 19–20
dogs 299
flight 157–63
gaze 135–6, 275
heads 143, 273, 299
horses 273
the point 138–40
and psychic abilities 304–5
sheepdogs 201
tails 137
vigilance 157–58,
bogs 68
Bolivia 171
Bond, James 162
bonfire moss 104
Borneo 51, 117
bournes 241
bowhead whales 304
bracken 221, 233–4
bradycardia, fear 151
brain
dolphins 305
and folklore 317
intuition 3
limbic system 39–45, 57, 69, 317
and motion 218–9, 220–1
neocortex 40, 44, 45, 61, 62
pattern recognition system 14, 57–8, 65, 289–90
reading signs 66–7
shape recognition 60–2
and sight 135–6
see also thinking
brain fungus, yellow 121
brambles 108, 109–10, 113–14, 218, 265, 319
Brazil 124
breezes 227–8, 236–7, 341
British Army Intelligence 288–90
Brontë, Charlotte 42
Brontë, Emily 226
browsing 105, 106–8, 109–10
bubbles
in flocks 202–3
perception bubbles 303–4
buffalo 206
buildings, wind and 52, 87–8
bullfinches 130
Burkina Faso 241
bursts 206
Bushmen 194, 285, 325–6
Butler, Charles 271–2, 276
butterflies 65, 213–14, 240, 246, 267, 269, 329
buzzards 185, 186, 187, 215, 218, 219, 254

the cacaphony 168–78
Cádiz 205
California ground squirrels 162, 313
Cambe, Alban 59
camels 170
camouflage 57, 148–9
Canada 64, 239, 257–258
Canopus (constellation) 249
card games 42
Cardamine pratensis 263
cardinal directions, wind 80
Caribbean 86
caribou 87
caring, and intuition 69–71
carnivores 124, 175
carnivorous plants 315
carrion flowers 315
Cartesian rationalism 16
Cassiopeia (constellation) 32
‘cat and mouse’ games 161
Cato the Elder 271
cats 69, 123, 134, 240–1, 301, 310
cattle 101, 105, 138, 139–40, 154, 162
cattle egrets 270
cave paintings 319
caves 67
celandine, lesser 112
the celebration 114
Celts 14
centipedes 267
chaffinches 129, 144, 196, 229, 253
chameleons 5
chamois 170
character traits, animals 294–299
charcoal kilns 223–4
Chatwin, Bruce 187, 279
cheetahs 150, 162, 191
cherry trees 240, 245, 267
Chichester Cathedral 292
chickadee, black-capped 177–78
chickens 124, 152, 166, 172, 175, 196, 309, 314
chiffchaffs 253
Chimborazo 339
chimpanzees 284, 292, 302
Christianity 60
Christmas 319
Church Stretton, Shropshire 231–2
churches 240, 244
cicadas 253
circadian rhythms 252
circling 184–88
cirrostratus clouds 55
cirrus clouds 55
cities 54, 92
Clare, John 239
cleaner fish 315
clepsydra 239
‘Clever Hans’ 304–5
cliffs 113
climbing plants 121
clocks 239, 250
clouds
cloud-seeding 87
and coastlines 86
colour 87
formation of 84–6
indicating islands 86, 87
lenticular clouds 88
and light 184
and mosquitoes 29
shapes 60–1
shear 75–6, 76
sun compasses 84
weather fronts 55
wind turbulence 88
coal fungus 121
coal tits 145, 265
coastlines, clouds and 86
cockroaches 196
cognition, animals 294–299
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 339–40
‘Frost at Midnight’ 237
collective nouns 285
colour
camouflage 149
lichens 98, 246–7
and robins’ aggression 63–4
signs 64, 65
tracking 182
in ultraviolet light 305
underside of clouds 87
Columbia Plateau 331
comma butterflies 269
communication 168–78, 206
compasses see direction
Congo 5, 95, 264–5
conifers 87, 95, 112, 121, 147, 256, 268
conscious thinking see slow thinking
constellations
and direction 13–15, 32, 35–9, 36–8
and ‘the handrail’ 92–3
see also individual constellations
coots 267
cormorants 319
corvids 136, 166, 178, 185, 203, 276, 303
see also individual species
Cowper, William, ‘The Doves’ 16–17
cows 101, 105, 138, 139–40, 154, 162
crabs 338
cramp balls 121
cranes 207
Cree Indians 257–58
Crete 26–34, 45, 86
crickets 304
crocodiles 134–5
the crook 229–30
crosswords 18, 22
crouching 150–1
crows 127, 138, 184–5, 205, 240
aptitudes 294
calls 69
circling 187
crouching 151
habitat 326–7
jinking 214–15
sentinels 128
squall squawk 196
cuckooflower 263
cuckoos 39
cumulus clouds 60
Cygnus (constellation) 32

danger, vigilance 142–5, 148
Darwin, Charles 276
dawn chorus 196, 238, 239, 252–4, 267
Dayak tribespeople 5, 51
death
feigning 152
signs of 119–24
deception see trickery
deciduous trees 120–1, 256–7, 267, 268
Deely, John 59
deer 5, 21–2, 203, 257
browsing 107, 108, 109
character 297
communication 173–4
damage to trees 105, 105, 122
expressions 134
fear bradycardia 151
flight 159, 161, 162, 166–7
the freeze 148, 150, 297
gaze 136–7
in humid weather 56
hunting 51, 155, 283, 285, 286, 316
the ignore 224
jinking 212–13, 216–17
predator detection 312
refuges 165, 167
self-medication 124
senses 94–5, 137
sex of 267–68
sounds 147–8, 198
stotting 189, 190–1
tails 137
territory 210–11
and ticks 68
tracking 182
vigilance 144
see also individual species
defence calls 175
defences
camouflage 149
crouching 150–1
flight 153–63, 165–6
the freeze 148–50
refuges 164–7
trees 123
vigilance 142–5, 148, 150, 154–8, 204
Deneb 38
dependence 66
depression 296
Descartes, René, Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One’s Reason 293
deserts 78, 192–3, 332–3
detectives 41–2, 43, 45
dew 182, 341
dew point 85
direction
animal alignment 138–40
constellations and 13–15, 32, 35–9, 36–8
drumlins 232
ferns and 269
and flight 161
indigenous communities and 15–16
lichens and 98
and light 112–13, 114
‘pointing’ 275
rainbows and 30–1
and the ramp 77–81
sun as compass 29–30, 82–3
tick effect 12–13
wild thyme and 328–9
wind 75–6, 227
disease, signs of 119–24
dock plants 68, 114
doctors 41, 43
dogs
barking 58, 68, 169, 179, 301
body language 299
circling 188
expressions 134
faeces 110
gaze 135, 136, 275
hunting with 87, 161
the ignore 224, 225
illness 123
learning 293
marking territory 294–5
patterns of motion 213
‘pointing’ 275
and seals 6–7
self-medication 124
sheepdogs 201–2
tails 137
dog’s mercury 113
dolphins 305
domestic animals 272–5
doves 167, 229
drumlins 232–3
ducks 100
feigning death 152
flight 159, 160
flocks 207
landing 20
predator recognition 61–2
vigilance 145
dunes 78, 79
dung 255–6
dust vortices 87–8
Dutch elm disease 122

eagles 64, 175, 178
early humans 277–8, 280
ears
body language 273
hearing 24–5
see also sounds
Eartham Pit, West Sussex 242–3
earthworms 304, 308
East Anglia 85
echolocation 216, 311
ecology 325
ecosemiotics 58
ecotones 99–102
ecotypes 328
Ecuador 89, 258
eddies 87, 226–8
edges 99–102
Edward of Norwich 106, 157, 161, 298
egg-timers 239
eggs, birds’ 8
elder trees 114, 121
electromagnetism, fish 304
elephants 134, 157, 168, 196, 205, 296
Elford, Colin 286
emotions
in animals 134, 275, 296–7
limbic system 39, 41, 69
reading signs 66, 67
energy conservation 154–5, 157, 171
Enlightenment 16
epidemics 122
ESP (extra-sensory perception) 43
evolution 3, 43, 65, 213, 314
experience, reading signs 58, 66
expressions
animals 134–7
facial 132–4
eyes
gaze 135–6, 275
sight 96–7, 274, 305, 306, 312

Facial Action Coding System (FACS) 133
facial expressions 132–4
fallow deer 109, 147, 148, 159, 166, 212–13, 216–17, 224
farming 102–3, 247, 270, 279, 332
fast thinking 17–25, 340–1
associative activation 67–9
in birds 136
building blocks 44–5
identifying birds 62–4
ikus view 327
limbic system 39–45
fear 39–40, 295–6
FEAR (Flee Early and Avoid the Rush) 155
fear calls 175
feedback 68–9, 71
feigning death 152
ferns 248, 269
fight or flight response 39–40
finches 8, 207, 314
firebreaks, in woodland 96–7
firebugs 59
fires 42–3, 70, 103–4
fireflies 57
fish
chains of events 338
electromagnetism 304
flight 159–60
gills 134
pursuit-deterrence signals 191
‘rise’ 164–5, 221
signs of discomfort 124
trickery 315
vision 306
fishing 6, 240, 257–8, 331
‘the fizz’ 95
flehmen response 273
flies 66, 240, 300, 303, 315
the flight 153–63, 165–6
flocks 199–208
floods 249
flowers
associations 68, 328–30
bees and 310–11
butterflies and 65
as compass 64
and light levels 112, 113–14
on paths 100
and time 250, 258
trickery 315
and weather 195
in woods 64
fog 85
foliage see leaves
folklore 317–23
footprints see tracking
foraging 277–79
forests see trees; woodland
fossils 242–3
Foster, W. A. 205
foxes 145, 215, 253, 268
catching birds 121, 203–4
cows and 139–40
and direction 59
looking at 136
mass-killing 152
and rabbit cycles 257
signs of 187
tracks 101
foxgloves 248–9
France 59, 205
francolin 149
fraying 105–6, 285
the freeze 148–50, 152, 311
frogs 199–200, 253
fronts, weather 55
frost 235–7, 247–9
Fulani people 241, 332–3
Funaria hygrometrica 104
fungi 116
colours 64
on distressed trees 120, 121–2
and time 255–6
warning system for trees 57

galls 116
gambling 42
gamekeepers 139, 193, 214, 216
games 160–1
gaze 135–6, 275
gazelles 150, 162, 177, 190–1, 333
geese 61–2, 159, 207, 249
geocaching 49
ghosts 322–3
Gilbert Islands 196
glaciation 232
Glu people 270
gnats 6
go-away birds 177
goats 174
goat’s beard 238, 251
God 339
golden plovers 315
golf 25
gooseberries 250
gorillas 314–15
gorse 121, 324, 341
goshawks 152
granite 68
grasses 109
animal self-medication 124
the ramp 78, 79, 80, 93
reflecting light 96
the shimmy 222
grasshoppers 306–7, 311
grasslands 105
great tits 129, 169–70, 178, 265
green monkeys 175, 176, 317
green woodpeckers 146, 305
greenhouses 28
Gregory of Nyssa, St 60
grey mullet 338
grey seals 149
Griffiths, Martin 14
Grimble, Arthur 196, 337–8
grizzly bears 169
grosbeak 188
group behaviour 199–208
guides 192–4
guinea pigs 162
gulls 166, 176, 185–6, 187, 194, 206, 207

habitat 325
ikus 324–34
Hai/lom Bushmen 325–6
Halnaker, West Sussex 184, 242–3
Halobates robustus Barber 205
haloes, round sun or moon 55
Ham Wall, Somerset 266–7
‘the handrail’ 89–93
Harari, Yuval Noah 18, 279
Hardin, Joel 22
hares 102, 318
browsing 105, 108
defence calls 175
flight 166
freezing 149
the point 139
stripping bark from trees 106, 122
zigzagging 162
Harting, James 177
‘hat-thrower’ fungus 256
Hatfield, Fred 169, 171
the haven 108–9, 110
Hawaiian islands 242
hawk moths 65
hawks 61, 127, 128, 175, 177, 266, 330
Hawksworth & Rose scale 97
hawthorn 116, 223
hazel 116, 121, 221, 239
head
body language 143, 273, 299
and flight 158
hearing 24–5
see also sounds
heather 233–4
Heathrow Airport 87
hedgehogs 154
hedges
age of 244
animal crossing points 101–2
birds and height of 129
numbers of organisms in 116
predicting bird behaviour 276
as refuges 165
and time 250
herbivores 124
herd defence 204
herds see flocks
herons 157
herring gulls 176
hills
anticipating precipices 20–1
drumlins 232–3
‘the handrail’ 90
wind turbulence 88
hippopotami 134
Hobbes, Thomas 278
holly trees 268
Holmes, Sherlock 42
honey 5
honey-guide birds 194
honeybees 194, 293, 310–11, 315
honeysuckle 122, 250, 255
Hooper’s Rule 244
hornbills 177
horse-chestnut trees 142
horses
approaching 151
body language 134, 272–5
‘Clever Hans’ 304–5
dung 255
hoof prints 180
the point 139
sleep 255
sounds 169
spooking 273, 323
vision 312
Hughes, Steve 267
Humboldt, Alexander von 171–2, 263–4
Naturgemalde 339
Hume, David 68
humidity 55–6, 242
humility, in hunting 285–6
humpback whales 258
Hunn, Eugene 328
hunting 32–3, 277–87
and alarm calls 177
and circling 188
clouds and 87
deer 155
early humans 277–8, 280
and edges 102
and flight 161
the freeze 149
hunter-gatherers 173, 242–3, 270, 277–8, 280, 285–6
indigenous communities 15, 285–6
and landscape 243
patience 5, 284
the point 139
predicting animal behaviour 281–3, 290
trickery 315–16
venery 284–5
and the wind 51
see also predators
hurricanes 196

ibex 170
ice
and colour of clouds 87
Inuit knowledge of 55
katabatic winds 320
moon and 257
the ramp 78, 79
ice cream 67
Iceland 320
identifying
animals 267–68
birds 62–4, 142, 265–7, 268
images 309–11
plants 264–5, 269
trees 267, 268–70
the ignore 223–5
ikus 324–34
images
identifying 309–11
search images 307
indigenous communities 276
communication with animals 277
fast thinking 18
forecasting tsunamis 46
hunting 15, 285–6
identifying plants 264–5
reading landscapes 327–8
sense of direction 15–16
tracking 179
and the wind 51
industrial revolution 270, 279
infra-red light 305
insects
group behaviour 205
patterns of behaviour 28–9, 254
as pollinators 112
sounds 253
in trees 116, 168
and ultraviolet light 305
see also bees, flies etc
insight 25
intelligence 321
intuition 2–3, 22
and facial expressions 132–4
and the ramp 80–1
and signs 66–71
Inuit 5, 54–5, 66, 180, 249, 258
Ireland 60, 232
islands 101
indicated by clouds 86, 87
volcanic 242
Ivory Coast 292
ivy 108, 123, 219, 222, 245, 250
jackdaws 205, 296, 306–7, 309–10
jaguars 35, 40, 89, 172
Japan 316
Jefferies, Richard 7–8, 39, 117–18, 150, 235, 326, 332
jelly ear 121
jellyfish 254
Jew’s ear 121
jinking 212–17
‘jizz’, birds 266
Judas Iscariot 121
jumping 162
Jung, Carl 40–1, 43

Kahneman, Daniel 17
Thinking, Fast and Slow 17
Kalahari 15, 279, 285, 297
katabatic winds 320
Keats, John 238
kestrels 135, 166
Kielder Forest 94–5
Kilauea volcano 242
killing 152, 284, 286
see also hunting
King Alfred’s Cakes 121
Klein, Gary 17, 42–3
Klutuk 169
knowledge, reading signs 66
Kutchin people 281–2

Lack, David 63
lady’s smock 263
lagoons, and colour of clouds 87
lakes, wind and 53–4
landscapes
awareness of 331–4
ecosemiotics 58
ecotones 99–102
and eddies 227
fires 103–4
folklore 322
‘the handrail’ 89–93
human influence 331–2
and hunting 243
prevailing wind 80
reading 327–28
Lapland 339
lapwings 150
larch trees 116
laurel bushes 220
learning
animals 292–3
limbic system and 41, 69
‘once bitten, twice shy’ 41, 43–4
leaves
browsing 106
fraying 105–6
and light 112
sounds of 95, 141
and time 250
and wind direction 227
Leco people 171
leisure 279, 280
lenticular clouds 88,
Leo (constellation) 89
leopards 5, 58, 151, 178, 204, 276
Lewis, David 15, 331
Leylandii 117
lichens 97–8, 104, 116, 122, 240, 246–7
Liebenberg, Louis, The Art of Tracking: The Origin of Science 180
lies, detecting 132
light 111–14
and aspect 112–13
and circadian rhythms 252
clouds and 85, 184
and lichens 98
moonlight 89
phototropism 12–13
plants and 112, 251
and temperature 112
ultraviolet 305
in woodland 95–6
see also sun
lightning 23–4, 122
limbic system 39–45, 57, 69, 317
lime trees 116, 122
linear features, ‘the handrail’ 89–93
linnets 129
lions 154, 175, 176, 177, 276, 302, 317
litter 180–1
‘lizard brain’ 39, 62
lizards 137, 148, 155–6, 179, 189
Llanos region 171–2
Lombardy poplars 117
Long (artist) 64
long-tailed tits 186
Lopez, Barry 5, 320
lords-and-ladies 250
Lorenz, Konrad 296
Lorenzini, Stefano 304
Lyrid meteors 240

macaques 58
Magarey, Thomas 179
magnetic field, Earth’s 304
magpies 135–6, 211
Mairan, Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de 251–2
mallard ducks 145, 160
maps
sky maps 87
wind maps 51–5
marmots 170
Mars 78
mathematical abilities 304–5
Maya people 327, 331
meadows 101, 301
meaning, search for 59–60
meerkats 128
Meilleur, Brien 328
melanism 149
merlins 62, 190
Mesoamerica 327, 340
meteors 240
mice 292
Micronesia 331
Middle Ages 284–5, 297–8
midges 205
millipedes 267
mimosa 251–2
mind, theory of 302
minerals, after fires 103–4
mines 3–4
Minsmere, Suffolk 6–7
mint 68
mist 321
the mistake 225
mistle thrushes 220, 239
mistletoe 122
mole rats 169
moles 194
monarch butterflies 214
Monet, Claude 293
mongooses 177
monkeys 172
alarm calls 174–8, 317
body language 137
recognition of leopards 58
self-medication 124
trickery 317
yawning 134
moodiness 296
moon 55, 89, 257–8, 289, 337
moorland 95
moose 169, 281–2, 315–16
moschatel 244, 258
mosquitoes 28–9, 160
mosses 104, 116, 122
moths 65, 68, 267, 304, 311
motion
jinking 212–17
the shimmy 218–22
as sign 64–5
mountains 91, 242, 320
mouse deer 51
movement see motion
muntjac deer 5
the musit 102
musk ox 188

Nagel, Thomas 302
Native Americans 60, 257, 281–2, 315–16
navigation
and colour of clouds 87
‘the handrail’ 89–93
see also direction
Navigator’s triangle (constellation) 32, 38,
neck shapes, identifying birds of prey 61–2
Nelson, Admiral Horatio 205
Nelson, Richard 193–4
neocortex, brain 40, 44, 45, 61, 62
nests, birds 193, 200, 330
nettles 68, 104, 110, 114, 256, 265
Noah (Cree Indian) 257–8
nobility 284
nocturnal animals 89
North Star 28, 32
Norway maple 116
Norway spruce 246
nouns, collective 285
nuthatches 166, 196, 220
nyctinasty 251

oak trees 115–16
acorns 256–7
associations 46
crows and 326–7
life phases 243
organisms associated with 116
squirrel damage 106
suckers 122
observation, reading signs 66–7
octopuses 64
omens 40–1
‘once bitten, twice shy’ 43–4
‘open-field’ test 295–6
opossums 152
oral tradition 271
Orinoco 171–2, 263–4
Orion (constellation) 13–15, 35–8, 36–7, 50, 68, 89
otters 333
owls 128, 149, 166, 168, 255
ox-peckers 270

Pacific 87, 196, 337–8
pack ice 87
Palauan people 331
palms, sweating 42
panic 90, 159
Panormos, Crete 27, 34
parachute-plants 315
parasites 122, 315
parrots 170, 171
partridges 276
passion vines 315
pasture 101, 301
Patagonia 187
paths see tracks
patience 5, 66, 284
patterns
brain’s pattern recognition system 14, 57–8, 65, 289–90
hunting and 278
peach trees 243
peacocks 285
pecking order, birds 202–3
the peek 141–5, 154, 167
Pegasus (constellation) 329
Pele 242
pelicans 157
Penobscot Indians 315–16
perception bubbles 303–4
perches 128–9
peregrine falcons 151, 207–8, 292
perennial plants 248
pheasants 48, 185, 194, 204
calls 49, 172, 253
associations 222
patterns of behaviour 56
predator detection 330
roosting 49, 147
vigilance 157, 158
pheromones 168
photography, wildlife 287
phototropism 12–13,
phytosemiotics 58
Picasso, Pablo 293
pickpockets 41–2, 45
Pierce, Charles Sanders 59
pigeons 130, 213, 229, 333
brains 303
bubbles 202–3
the burst 203, 206
display flight 276
facial recognition 136
flight 153, 157, 203, 266
jinking 214–15, 217
navigation 294
sentinels 128
the shimmy 219
sounds 170
pilobolus mould 255–6
pimpernels, scarlet 195
pine trees 116, 117, 123, 243, 268–9, 308
pink compass 82–3
plantation forests 94–5
plants
age of 244–5
and age of woodland 243–4
fires 103–4
identifying 264–5, 269
lifecycles 248–9
and light levels 111–14, 251
phototropism 12–13,
phytosemiotics 58
as refuges 165
seasonal timings 247–49
the shimmy 219–22
signs of animals 105–10
and time 251–2
and tracking 182–3
trickery 315
zones 234
see also flowers; leaves; trees and individual species
Player, Gary 25
Pleiades (constellation) 249
The Plough (constellation) 32
plovers 187
poachers 102, 139, 214
the point 138–40
polar bears 145, 180, 245, 303–4
pollination 112
pollution, air 97
ponds 53–4, 241, 242
poplars 117
porcupines 154, 170
Portmeirion 231
Potawatomi people 257
predators 189–90
and alarm calls 172–8
attacking flocks 207–8
circling 187–8
crouching 151
detection of 311–13
and edges 101
expressions 134
and feigning death 152
and flight 162, 166
and the ignore 224–5
and jinking 214
the point 139
and prey animals’ behaviour 295–6
pursuit-deterrence signals 190–1
speed 306
vantage points 128
and vigilance 144–5
predicting behaviour 276, 281–3, 290
primates 136, 178, 292, 302
‘producer-scrounger’ view 295
pronking 191
protozoa 123
psithurism 95
psychic abilities 304–5
ptarmigan 151, 162
puddles 23, 235, 241–2
Pueblo Indians 40
pursuit-deterrence signals 190–1
Pygmies 5, 95, 264–5
Pyrrhocoris apterus 59

quinuituq (patience) 5, 66

rabbits 64, 105, 127, 215, 341
associations 68
browsing 108, 109, 110
communication 170, 175
cycles 257
damage to trees 106
feigning death 152
hunting 290
patterns of motion 213
refuges 166
runs 101
and time 259
vigilance 143, 145
raccoons 175
ragwort 110, 259
railway lines 90, 91
rain 56, 141–2
and colour of clouds 85
forecasting 5–6, 18–19
and prevailing wind 85
sound of 95, 141
rainbows 30–1, 238
Ramalina siliquosa 97
the ramp 77–81
rational thought 16
rats 152, 296
rattlesnakes 170, 313
ravens 171, 194
rays (fish) 304
reading 62
the reaper 120–4
red deer 161
reed warblers 267
reefs, and colour of clouds 87
refuges 164–7
reindeer 168
religion 60, 339
reptiles 152, 313
see also lizards; snakes
the retreat 210–11
the return 130–1
rhinoceroses 134, 205
Rhyder, John 181
rhymes 323
ringed seals 145
riparian zone 100
ripples, on water 54, 221
rituals 319
rivers
ecotone 100
eddies 87
‘the handrail’ 90, 91, 93
roads, ‘the handrail’ 90, 91
robins 153, 185, 194, 240
aggression 63–4
alarm calls 209–10
and bad weather 196
dawn chorus 253
and height of hedges 129
songs 169
territory 63–4, 215–16, 295
vigilance 144, 158
rocks 4, 78, 79, 332
rodents 105, 149, 154, 162, 178
roe deer 56, 108, 144, 148, 150, 173–4, 189, 191, 267–8, 298
Rogers, Lesley 135–6
Romans 40, 271, 280
Romanticism 16
rooks 205, 255, 330
Roosevelt, Theodore 280
rosebay willowherb 104
Royal Navy 205
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) 6–7, 39, 62, 266–7
Rumsfeld, Donald 162
Ruskin, John 39

Saffron Walden, Essex 18–19
Sahel region 241, 332–3
sailing 84
St John’s wort 239
St Lucia 86
St Mark’s fly 240
salmon 331
salt 5, 80, 97
San Bushmen 15, 285
sand
and colour of clouds 87
the ramp 78, 79
saprotrophs 121
sardines 338
sastrugi, ice 78, 79
scallops 306, 311
scent
butterflies and 65
deer and 94–5
and eddies 227–8
and jinking 216
marking territory 294–5
science 180, 270–2
Scorpius (constellation) 32, 68, 240
Scots pine 116, 117
Scottish Highlands 312
Scrimgeour, Derek 201
sea
and colour of clouds 87
fog 85
and formation of clouds 85–6
tides 288–9, 337
waves 77, 78
‘sea ivory’ 97
sea lions 134
seals 6–7, 145, 149, 180, 245, 258, 304
search images 307
seasons 39, 83, 239–40, 247–49
Second World War 27
sedges 114
sedimentary rocks 4
seeds 243–4
self-heal 182
semiotics 58–60
senses 300–1
and hunting 283
intuition 2–3
perception bubbles 303–4
reading signs 66–7
see also sight; smell etc
sentinels 128–9
Serengeti 333
shadows 83, 114, 255
shapes 60–2
circles 186–7
flocks 199–201
mountains 242
the ramp 77–81
sharks 196, 304, 337–38
the shear 75–6
sheep 153
alarm calls 174
body language 134
browsing 108
communication 170
flight 185
flocks 159, 199, 200–2
folklore 319
hedges 101
sounds 58, 92
Shereston, Adam 274–5
the shimmy 218–22
shops, perception of 300–1
shrikes 177
shrubs 78
sight 95–6, 274, 305, 306, 312
signs 45
anomalies 65
colour 64, 65
and dependence 66
and evolution 65
and intuition 66–71
motion 64–5
semiotics 58–60
silkworm moths 304
Sirius 50, 249
sixth sense 1–8
skills, improving 25
sky maps 87
skylarks 190
slate mines 3–4
sleep 255
slime flux 122
slow thinking 17–25, 340–1
in birds 136
identifying birds 62
tracking 180
smell, sense of 94–5, 273, 283
snails 306
snakes 188, 305
and alarm calls 178
body language 134
folklore 321–2
pattern recognition 57, 60
the shimmy 222
sounds 170
trickery 315
Umwelt 313
snow 48, 49–50, 59, 78, 87, 249
social rankings 296
soil, colour 331
Solubba people 278
song thrushes 129, 220, 240, 253, 268, 292
songbirds 166, 173, 175, 211, 225, 250
sorrel, wood 244
sounds 306
communication 168–78
deer 147–8, 298
rain 96, 141
squall squawk 196
trees 96, 141
of walkers 147
wind 96
South America 172, 263–4
South Downs 12–13, 46, 55, 86, 341
South East Asia 46
Spain 64, 171, 205
sparrowhawks 172
sparrows 144, 145, 178, 313
speckled wood butterflies 213–14
speech 62
speed 156, 182, 306
spider monkeys 124
spiders’ webs 179, 303
sports 160–1
spring, signs of 247–8, 249
springs 241
springtails 160
spruce trees 116, 123, 243, 246, 250
squall squawk 195–6
squirrels 48, 130, 132, 215, 297
alarm calls 177, 178
body language 65, 137, 189
damage to trees 106, 122
feigning death 152
flight 162
freezing 136
and hand movements 64–5
melanism 149
messages 168
the mistake 225
predator detection 313
refuges 164, 165, 166, 167, 223
the shimmy 218, 219–20, 221
territory 210
vigilance 143–5
standing waves 88
starfish 306, 311
starlings 144, 177, 206, 207, 208, 285, 313
stars
associations 68
see also constellations and individual stars
stinging nettles 68, 104, 110, 114, 256, 265
stoats 193
stone walls 246
stonechats 173
storms 116, 230, 258, 341
storytelling 317–23
stotting 189–91
streams 241
stripping 105, 106
suckers 122
sulphur dioxide 97
summer triangle (constellation) 32, 38
sun
and animal behaviour 254
as a compass 29–30, 82–3
and formation of clouds 85–6
haloes 55
rainbows 30–1, 238
rising 82–3
setting 82, 289
see also light
sun scald 122–3
superstitions 40–1
surgeons 70
sweating palms 42
Sweden 243
swifts 61, 221
sycamore trees 77, 80, 106, 116
symbols, semiotics 58–60

Tag (game) 160, 161
tails 64–5, 137, 189
tamarind 251
tamarisk 265
Tanzania 188
tapirs 172
Taurus (constellation) 249, 259
tawny owls 168
teachers 70
technology, and wisdom 278
teeth, browsing 108
telephone conversations 2
temper yawn 134
temperature
damage to trees 122–3
and formation of clouds 85
and light 112
terpenes 87
territory 210–11, 229
disputes 120
jinking and 215–16
marking 106, 294–5
robins 63–4, 215–16
Thailand 251
thanatosis 152
theory of mind 302
thermals 87, 186, 187
thinking
rationalism 16
theory of mind 302
types of 17–20
see also fast thinking; slow thinking
Thomson, Donald 327–8
thrushes
dawn chorus 253, 292
in hedges 129
identifying 268
and the seasons 239, 240
the shimmy 220
squall squawk 196
thunder 24, 196
Thurlow, Rob 21–2
thyme, wild 328–9
tick birds 282–3
tick effect, trees 12–13
ticks 68
tides 257, 288–9, 337
tiger sharks 337–8
tigers 154, 276
time 228–59
aeons and moments 242–49
and behaviour 250–2
patterns and pairs 252–9
seasons 239–40
Umwelt and 305–6
The Times 18, 22
Tinbergen, Niko 176
tits 186
alarm calls 169–70, 178
flight 161
in hedges 129
identifying 265–6
‘roll and loop’ 162–3
squall squawk 196
vigilance 145
tools 292
tortoises 154, 196, 318
tracking 179–83
tracks and paths
frost on 235–6
‘the handrail’ 90, 91, 92
and time 255
wildflowers 100
in woodland 96–7
Trafalgar effect 205–6
Traherne, Thomas 339
trees 115–18
age of 244–6
ancient trees 243
anomalous trees 116–18
burnt by salt 80
cloud-seeding 87
as compass 12–13, 64
the crook 230
distressed trees 120–3
and frost 236
and hunting 283
identifying 46, 264, 267, 268–9
ivy on 107
lichens 97–8
lifespan 243
phototropism 12–13
protection from animals 108–9
the ramp 78, 79, 80
as refuges 165
seasonal timings 247, 248
semiotics 60
shapes 120–1
the shimmy 219–20
signs of animals 105–9
sounds 95, 141
sun compasses 83
tick effect 12–13
and time 256–7
warning systems 57, 168
wind and 50, 52, 52, 53, 54, 201
Treherne, J. E. 205
trevally 338
trickery 314–16, 317
trout 6, 164–5
tsunamis 46, 69
tuna 331
tundra 162
turbulence, wind 87–8
turkeys 172
Turnbull, Colin 264–5
The Forest People 264–5
Tversky, Amos 17

Uexküll, Jakob von 294, 301
UFOs 88
ultraviolet light 305
Umwelt 300–13
unconscious mind see fast thinking
undergrowth, signs of animals 109
ungulates 106, 109, 134, 190–1
University of Queensland 293
urine, colour of 28

vantage points 127–9, 219
Vega 38
venery 284–5
Venus (planet) 138, 341
vertebrates, ancient brain 39–40
vervet monkeys 177, 178
vigilance 142–5, 148, 150, 154–8, 204
vineyards 247–8
vipers 305
Virgo (constellation) 249
vision 96–7, 274, 305, 306, 312
volcanic islands 242
voles 166, 338
Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de 294
vultures 188, 304

Wales 3–4, 85
walls, stone 246
walnut trees 117–18
wasps 40, 44, 205, 254, 265, 275, 292, 330
watched, awareness of being 1–2, 5
water
crossing Crete 26–7
eddies 87, 227
finding 270, 282, 322, 331
ponds 241, 242
puddles 23, 235, 241–2
ripples 54, 221
and time 241–2
waves 77, 78, 88
wind and 53–4
see also rivers
water clocks 241
‘water sky’ 88
water vapour, formation of clouds 84–6
water voles 170, 221
waves 76, 77, 88
weasels 154, 166, 193
weather
folklore 321, 323
forecasting 5–6, 18–19
fronts 55
frost 235–7, 247–9
squall squawk 195–6
wildflowers and changes in 195
see also rain; wind
Weddell seals 145
wedge effect 78, 79
wet wood 122
whales 169, 258, 304, 320
White, Gilbert 196
white-tailed deer 161
Wik Monkan people 327–8
wild boar 194, 257, 283
wild garlic 244
wildcats 33–4
wildebeest 188
wildernesses 47
wildflowers see flowers
willow tits 145
willowherb, rosebay 104
willows 115, 239
wind 48–56
animals and 50–1
direction 75–6
eddies 226–8
and flight 161, 166
and frost 236–7
horses and 274
katabatic winds 320
obstacles 52–4
and plant zones 234
predicting animal behaviour 282
prevailing wind 80, 85
the ramp 77–81
shaping trees 121, 201
the shear 75–6
sound of 95
turbulence 87–8
and waves 77
weather fronts 55
wind maps 51–5
Wintinna Mick 15, 331
wisdom 66, 276
early humans 270
folklore 318, 320
and identifying animals and plants 264
indigenous communities 264–5, 272
and intelligence 321
oral tradition 271
predicting animal behaviour 281–3
and technology 278
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 302, 305
wolves 136, 145, 157, 187, 275
wood avens 112
‘wood blindness’ 95
wood sorrel 6
woodchucks 148
woodland and forests
age of 243–4
cloud formation over 87
and colour of clouds 87
edges 102, 269
‘the handrail’ 91, 92
lichens 97–8
light levels 95–6, 114
plantations 94–5
as refuges 165
spotting animals in 96–7
and vision 95
wedge effect 78, 79
wildflowers in 64
wind and 50, 52, 52, 54
see also trees
woodpeckers 46, 146, 166, 170, 215, 305
woodruff 244
worms 304, 308
wrens 168
alarm calls 173, 218
dawn chorus 253
predicting behaviour 330
sentinels 128
the shimmy 219, 221

!Xo people 277

yardangs, rock 78, 79
yawning 134
yellowhammers 129
yew trees 113, 220, 243, 244
Young, Will 267
YouTube 64

zigzagging 162, 213, 214, 216
zoopharmacognosy 124
zoosemiotics 58, 59


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