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Index of The Secret World of Weather

Tristan Gooley

THE SECRET WORLD OF WEATHER

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Index

Page numbers in italic refer to the illustrations

Aberdeen 240–1

Aborigines 296

accessory clouds 96, 103

adders 286

advection fog 136–7, 139–41, 142

Africa 174, 190

agriculture see farming

air: foehn winds 103

   and frost formation 87–8

   heat convection 17–19

   humidity 35

   latent heat 23–5

   pollution in cities 265

   thermals 18–20, 35–9, 69

   visibility 142, 143

   water content 21

   see also atmosphere

air masses 42–4

   humidity 43

   and snow 128

   wind direction 61–3

   see also fronts

air pressure: and fungi spores 246

   tree fans 11–12, 11, 216

   see also high-pressure systems; low-pressure systems

aircraft: contrails 157–9

   distrails 159–60

   fallstreak holes 160

   in thunderstorms 312

   and turbulence 18

airlight 78

airports 108

Ajman, Emirate of 174

Alaska 333

alder trees 213

algae 111, 217

Algeria 180

Alps 15, 17, 64, 103, 166, 189, 206, 221

altitude: effects of 8

   and snow 128

   summit winds 197

   temperatures and 303–4

   trees and 218–19

altocumulus clouds 160, 161–2, 309

altrostratus clouds 40–1, 49, 51, 55

American Medical Association 199

anabatic winds 205

Anagallis arvensis 231–2

Andes 103, 151–2

animals 285–301

   dependable signs 287–90

   and snow line 133

   tracks 80–1, 95, 113

   warning of rain 285–6, 289–91

   in woodlands 209

   see also individual species

annuals 238–9

Antarctica 36, 61, 132

Antares 328

anthocyanins 228–9

ants 17, 295–7

anvil crawlers 317

anvils, storm clouds 304, 306, 310–11, 320

aphids 59

Apollonius of Rhodes 191, 205

apple trees 225

apples 229–30

Arabia 170–83, 235

Arabs 329

architecture 206, 267–9, 269

Arctic 61, 168, 268

‘Arctic sea smoke’ 142

arcus clouds 311–12

Argentina 150–2

Argonauts 191

Aristotle 205

Arnica montana 243

Arundel 138

ash trees 85, 227

Asia 174

aspect, and showers 107, 107

Asperitas cloud 306n.

Assyrians 333–4

Atacama desert 140, 204

Atlantic 5, 151, 186–7, 321, 322

Atlas mountains 234

atmosphere: boundary layer 167–8

   glass ceiling 26, 33, 84, 121, 304, 306

   stability 25, 35, 38

   stratosphere 303–4

   tropopause 303–4, 306

   twinkling stars 326

   weather lore 286–7

   see also air

Australia 45, 174, 206, 296

Aztecs 333–4

Babylonians 333–4

backing wind 64, 67, 197

Bacon, Francis 63, 294

bacteria 199–200

badgers 112, 291

Baja California desert 140

ball lightning 317

balls, in humid air 271

Banff 250–2, 259

banner clouds 164, 166–7, 278

bark, trees 133, 217, 222

barley 249

barometers 46

bats 294

BBC Gardener’s Question Time 297

beaches 70, 124–5, 174

bears 250–2, 253–4, 259–60

Bedouin 181–2

beds, squeaking 270

beech trees 115, 218, 225, 240, 285

   as compass 110–11

   copper beeches 229

   light and 112

   rain and 213, 214, 215

   sounds of 94, 227–8

bees 295, 299

beetles 295, 332

Belt of Venus 330

Białowieża Forest 133

Bible 63

Bindii flower 176

bindweed 236

birch trees 133, 213

birds 285

   identifying 225, 226

   and rain 94–5

   and thermals 19, 265

   tracks 80–1

   and weather signs 290–4

   and wind 269–70, 292–3, 301

Biscay, Bay of 189

black ice 83, 89

Black Pine 233

blackberries 228, 248–9

blackbirds 285

blanket clouds 169

blanket rain 97–100, 102, 104

blanket snow 128

blocking highs 9–10, 12

bluebells 241

boats: and hurricanes 321

   lake breezes 204–5

   long-distance sailing 186–7

   windvanes 313–14

body temperature 17

Bora wind 206

Botswana 231, 291

boundary layer 167–8

bracken 93, 116, 238, 240

brain 112, 316

brambles 93, 116, 229

branches, and shelter from rain 214

breezes 59–60, 69

   canopy breeze 114–15, 115

   city breezes 266, 267

   lake breezes 204–5

   land breezes 202, 203

   mountain breezes 204

   sea breezes 198–202, 201

   and smoke 119

   tree fans 11, 11

   valley breezes 203–4

   in woodlands 114–15, 115

Breva wind 205

bridges, and snow 129–30

Brittany 267–8

broadleaf trees 212, 213, 218, 221, 223, 225

Buenos Aires 150–1

buildings: shaped by weather 267–9, 269

   solar heating 265–6

   splitting weather 267

   urban-canyon effect 263–5

   and wind 272–4, 273

bulbs 239

buttercups 133, 236

butterflies 234, 240, 295, 297–8, 299

‘butterfly effect’ 194

Buy’s Ballot’s Law 207

buzzards 265, 301

Cairn Gorm 197

calendar, lunar 329

Calgary 252

Calhoun, Tennessee 134–5

Calidas, Tamsin 332–3

California 190, 198, 235

‘call-boys’ 143

‘calm before a storm’ 315

Cambridge Botanic Garden 302

camels 174, 177, 181, 183

Canada 174, 250–60, 298–9

Canary Islands 7, 187

canopies, trees 212–13

canopy breeze 114–15, 115

capping inversion 168

car crashes 134–5

car exhausts 265, 265

Caribbean 187, 321, 323

Carline thistles 236

Carrizo Plain grasslands 235

cats 286

cedar trees 177, 214, 225

celandine, lesser 241

Central Forecasting Station, Dunstable 4

Central Park, New York 262

Cevennes 189

chaffinches 291

chairs, squeaking 270

chalk 93

Channel Islands 140

channel winds 190–1, 204, 263

chaos theory 194

cherry trees 332

chestnut trees 213, 228

Chichester 265

Chile 150–1, 204, 206

Chilterns 88

China 333–4

chinook wind 103, 299

cirrocumulus clouds 161–2

cirrostratus clouds 40, 49, 50, 55, 157, 329

cirrus clouds 32, 33, 34, 39, 57

   above nimbostratus 157

   cirrus commas 147–9, 149, 154

   cold front cirrus 155–6

   cross-hatching 155

   cross-winds rule 208

   fallstreaks 148–9, 149, 150

   formation of 155–6

   fronts 49, 50

   jet stream ropes 153–4, 157

   mares’ tails 150, 157

   signs in 147–57

   speed 154

   ‘tall tell’ 156–7

cities and towns 261–74

   breezes 202, 266, 267

   buildings 267–70

   clouds and 146

   fog 136

   heat islands 265–6, 267

   population 270

   showers 106–7, 107

   splitting weather 266–7

   urban-canyon effect 263–5

   weather lore 270–1

   winds 70, 271–4, 273

Claridge, John 324–5

cliffs 107–9, 191, 195, 282–3, 292

clouds: bases 30, 31, 35, 96, 111, 280–1

   boundary layer of atmosphere 168

   cloud families 31–3, 34, 40–1

   cloud streets 162–3

   colours 27–8, 280–1 

   contrails 157–9

   cross-winds rule 207, 208

   distrails 159–60

   formation of 21, 24–5, 38–9, 96, 104

   and fronts 48–9, 50–5

   gaps between 28

   glass ceiling 26, 33, 304, 306

   hail 123–6

   and humidity of atmosphere 35

   lightning 316

   mackerel skies 160–2

   moving in differing directions 66–7, 67

   over islands 278–82

   rain 96, 97–9, 101–2, 105

   sea breeze heads 201–2

   Seven Golden Patterns 28–31

   shapes 25, 27–30

   signs in 145–69

   snow 126

   and stability of atmosphere 25, 35

   and time of day 37–8

   trains of clouds 280

   virga 97, 103

   weather forecasting 27, 29–31

   see also individual types of cloud

clover 236

coasts 275–84

   beaches 70, 124–5, 174

   microclimates 284

   monsoon 277–8

   and rain 107–9

   winds 282–3

   see also islands; seas and oceans

cock’s-foot grass 237

cold fronts 46, 47, 48–9, 52–4, 143, 155–6, 309

Colorado 92–3

colours: clouds 27–8, 280–1

   in dewdrops 76

   Earth’s shadow 330

   hail 124

   haze 142

   lightning 319

   red 228–30

   sky 54–5

   trees 111

commas, cirrus 147–9, 149, 150, 154

Como, Lake 205

compasses 71

   termite mounds as 296

   see also navigation

computers, weather forecasts 5–7

condensation 21–2, 25, 74–5, 96, 271

conduction, heat 16–17

conifers 225

   and altitude 218, 253

   flagging 221

   rain and 93, 94, 213, 214

   temperatures 211

   as weather indicator 212

   wind bulge 216, 223

coning smoke 119, 120

continental weather 44

contrails 157–9

convection 17–20, 69

coral 275

Coriolis effect 61, 202, 323

cornel, dwarf 240

Cornus suecica 240

Cornwall 241

County Mayo 5

Covid-19 pandemic 182n., 270n., 331

cows 286

crickets 295

crocuses 236

crops see farming

cross-hatching 155

cross-winds rule 206–8

crows 95, 285, 293, 301

Cumbria 103

cumulonimbus clouds (storm clouds) 41, 303, 304–7, 310–12

   cold front cirrus 155–6

   distance away 304, 305

   energy 315

   formation of 304, 306, 307, 310

   and fronts 49

   hail 123–6

   life cycle 305–7

   movement 304–5, 305, 315

   rain 105, 307, 308

   shapes 306, 310–11

   snow 127

   tops and bottoms 310–12, 315

   tornadoes 319–20

   up- and downdraughts 310, 311, 312, 315, 320

cumulus clouds 33–9, 34, 36, 44, 56

   bases 96, 168

   cloud streets 162–3

   in deserts 177–8, 178, 180

   formation of 33

   and fronts 50, 50, 53

   and gusts 69

   island clouds 278, 279

   land breezes 202, 203

   over towns 266

   rain 96, 97–8, 100, 102, 105, 108

   rotor clouds 166

   and sea breezes 201–2

   snow 126

   and towns 146

   valley breezes 204

   winter sea cumulus 283–4

currents, oceans 45, 140, 151

cyclones 320

daisies 236

Dallas Fort Worth airport 312

Dalmatia 206

dandelions 234, 236, 241

Dartmoor 232–3

Darwin, Charles 18

Datoo wind 206

dead-reckoning, navigation 151, 152

deciduous trees 93, 211, 218

deer 97, 110, 113, 115–17, 121, 287

Defence and National Rehabilitation Centre, East Leake 145–6

Delta Airlines 312

dendrites, snowflakes 127

Denmark 332

Denver, Colorado 43

depressions 46

deserts 170–83

   flash floods 180, 181

   ‘fog deserts’ 140

   plants 80, 175–6, 235

   rain 172, 175–83, 235

   scents 117–18

   winds 182

dew 74–6, 78–82, 87

   colours 76

   dew point 21–2, 25, 38, 74–5, 96

   dew ponds 80

   and fog 137

   formation of 75

   Gideon’s fleece 79–80

   halos 76–7

   hoar frost 82

   and temperatures 74–6

   tracks in 80–2

   in woodlands 211–12

diseases 331–2

distrails 159–60

dogs 117–18, 119, 121, 287

donkeys 290

Douglas Fir 194, 211, 214

Dove, Heinrich 65

dragonflies 19, 59, 298, 299

drifts, snow 130–1, 131, 132

drizzle 97, 105

drought 62, 217, 238

Drury, Bob 37

Dubai 172, 173–4

dunes 130–1, 174, 177

Earth: Coriolis effect 61, 202, 323

   shadow 330

earthquakes 177

earthworms 290

Eberhardt, Isabelle 180

eddies 193–5, 222, 223, 265, 283

Edinburgh 45

Edith’s Checkerspot butterfly 234

Egypt 333–4

El Ain, Emirate of 175

El Niño 45

elfin wood 219

elk 254–5

Empire State Building, New York 318

Empty Quarter, Arabia 181

energy: and change of state 23–4

   cumulonimbus clouds 315

epiphytes 217, 222

erosion, hoodoos 252

Everest, Mount 167, 304

evergreens 239

eyebrow clouds 280

eyesight 288

Fairmont Banff Springs Hotel 259

fallow deer 98, 110, 115–16

fallstreak holes 160

fallstreaks 148–9, 149, 150

fanning smoke 119, 120, 121

farming: crop circles 222

   crop damage 222

   rain and 231, 249

   waves in crops 249

   wind damage 222

fences, snow drifts 131, 131, 174

ferns 116

fir trees 194, 211, 214, 225

fires 104

fish 147

FitzRoy, Robert 4, 64

flag clouds 278

flagging, trees 220–1, 284

flags 269

flash floods 180, 181, 291

floodplains, and fog 138

floods 180, 181, 291, 302

Florida 232, 233, 333

flowers: on ant mounds 297

   in deserts 175–6, 235

   predicting rain 231–2

   scents 236

   and sun 233–4

   superblooms 235

   and weather changes 236

foehn winds 103–4, 299

fog 22, 134–43

   advection fog 136–7, 139–41, 142

   car crashes in 134–5

   fog banks 138, 140

   ‘fog deserts’ 140

   ‘fog drip’ 140

   formation of 21, 75, 136, 137

   haze 142

   and lichens 247

   radiation fog 136–9, 143

   and sea breezes 202

   steam fog 141–2

   trees and 141

   upslope fog 141

   and visibility 136

   as weather forecast 138

forecasts see weather forecasts

forests see woodlands and forests

fossils 96

foxes 22, 291

foxgloves 244

France 189, 206, 221, 267–8

Fremantle Doctor 206

frogs 290

fronts 46–55, 48–9

   cirrocumulus clouds 161

   cities and 266

   cold front cirrus 155–6

   cold fronts 46, 47, 48–9, 52–4, 143, 155–6, 309

   cross-winds rule 207

   and snow 129

   thunderstorms 309

   and visibility 142–4

   warm fronts 46, 47, 48–9, 50–2, 155, 158, 159

frost 82–91

   ‘frost bounce’ 87

   frost lines 238, 240

   frost pockets (hollows) 87–90, 89, 139, 224, 240

   and height 86

   hoar frost 82, 83–90, 309–10

   and landscape 87–90, 89

   mountain breezes 204

   rime ice 82–3

   thawing 90–1

   twinkling stars and 326

   in woodlands 211–12

fruit trees 84

fruits: blackberries 248–9

   colours 229–30

Fujairah, Emirate of 172

fumigating smoke 120, 121

fungi 214, 245–6

funnels, storm clouds 311, 320

gales 5, 196, 221, 222

gap winds 186–90, 188, 263–4

Garda, Lake 204, 205

Geminid meteor showers 327

gentians 236

George II, King 308

germ-warfare tests 199–200

Germany 219

ghibli wind 103

Gibbs, Peter 297

Gibraltar 190, 206

Gideon’s fleece 78–80, 89

Gilbert Islands 328

glacier buttercup 133

glaciers 132

glass ceiling 26, 33, 84, 121, 304, 306

glazed ice 83, 89

granite 93

grapes 228, 234

grasses 129, 236–7, 241, 242, 244

grasshoppers 242

grasslands 8, 37, 86

Great Plains 305n., 306n., 319

Greece 92, 191, 205

Grimble, Arthur 328

ground winds 57–8, 68

grouse 133

Gulf Stream 140

gulls 293, 332

haar 140

Haggard, William H. 200

hail 123–6, 157

Hales, Dr 85–6

Halnaker Windmill, Sussex 109, 282

halos 40, 50, 76–7, 329

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome 332

hardiness, plants 239–40

Hardy, Thomas 206–7, 224–5, 288

hares 133

hart’s tongue fern 116

harvest bugs 300

Havaiki 276

Hawaii 205

hawthorn trees 213, 220, 241

Hayling Island 104

haze 142

Heart Eddies 222, 223

heart rate, wind and 333

heat: and cloud formation 24–5, 39

   conduction 16–17, 79–80

   convection 17–20, 69

   and fog 137

   heat islands 265–6, 267

   heatwaves 302–3, 308

   hoar frost 84

   latent heat 23–5

   ocean currents 45

   sun pockets 13–15, 15

   thermals 35–9, 69

   and wind direction 61

   see also temperatures

‘heat lightning’ 317

heath rush 242

heather 8, 238, 240

heathland 8, 16, 86

heatwaves 9–10, 143

Hebrides 332–3

hedges: shelter belts 222

   snow drifts 131, 174

   and winds 73, 73, 292–3, 293

heiligenschein 76–7

helm wind 103

herd animals 289

herons 80–1

high-pressure systems 43, 44

   blocking highs 9–10, 12

   cross-winds rule 207

   fog 137

   hoar frost 84

   local winds 205

   sea breezes 200

   and snow 129

   wind direction and 61–2

hills: and cloud-base colours 281

   foehn winds 103

   and frost 87–8, 89

   and rain 100–1, 102–3

   split winds 192, 193

   summit winds 197

   see also mountains

Himalayan Balsam 239

hoar frost 82, 83–90, 309–10

Hodgkinson, W. P. 83

holly oak 212

holm oak 212

Homer 191, 207

honeyeater bird 291

hoodoos 252, 255–6, 255

horses 209, 287, 288–9

House of Wild Truth 112, 113–14

houses, and winds 195, 206

humans, scent 116–18, 119, 121, 253

humidity: air masses 43

   and clouds 35

   ‘humid blanket’ 25

   lichens and 247–8

   and scents 235–6

   signs of 270–1

   and snowflakes 127

   summer storms 308

   winds and 59–60

   woodland hygrometers 216–18

Hunt, Nick 189

hurricanes 320–3, 322

Hyderabad 268

hygrometers, woodland 216–18

ice: anatomy of raindrops 105

   cirrostratus clouds 40

   cirrus clouds 148, 155–6

   cumulonimbus clouds 306

   energy 23

   fallstreak holes 160

   fallstreaks 148–9, 149

   frost 82–91

   glaciers 132

   glazed ice 83, 89

   hail 123–4

   on ponds 133

   rime ice 82–3

   snowflakes 126–7

   virga 97, 103

Iceland 205, 220

Inca 333–4

India 62, 268, 317, 321

Indian Ocean 62, 277–8, 329

indigenous wisdom 172–3, 183

indigo, wild 236

infrared energy 16

insects 59, 147, 209, 249, 285, 295–300

International Cloud Atlas 31

Inverness 84–5, 88

inversion, temperature 26, 50, 84, 119–21, 142, 168, 198

Ireland 5, 151, 249

islands 7, 44

   clouds 278–82

   frost 88

   gap winds 187

   Pacific Ocean navigation 185

   split winds 191–2

   temperatures 45

Isle of Wight 104, 282, 313

isophenes 241

Italy 206

ivy 94, 133, 227

jackdaws 294

Japan 140, 141, 225, 249

Jason 191

Jebel Hafeet 173

Jefferies, Richard 28, 248, 293, 300

jet stream 150–5, 157

jigsaws 225–6

jizz, identifying trees 225

Juncus effusus 235

juniper 8, 213, 214

Jura mountains 7–8

kampf zone 218

Kapalilua wind 205

katabatic winds 205, 220, 221, 313

Kazakhstan 229

kestrels 292

Kiribati 275

Kiruna 268

kite, red 291

Kootenai Plains 299

krummholz 218

Kuroshio current 140

Labrador current 140

Lake District 42

lakes: and fog 138, 142

   ice on 133

   lake breezes 204–5

laminar flow 68

land: and cirrus clouds 147–8, 150

   effects on winds 73

   and frost 87–90, 89

   ground winds 57–8

   heat from the sun 18

   land breezes 202, 203

   local winds 184–98, 188, 193, 196, 203–8

   radiation fog 136–9

   and rain 93, 100–3, 104, 109

   sea breezes 200–1, 201

   shaping weather 6–9

   temperatures 44

   and weather forecasting 6–7

landspouts 320

Lanzarote 187

Lapland 132

larch trees 213, 214

latent heat 23–5

Latin America 248–9

leaves: animal tracks 113

   and drought 217

   microclimates 242–4, 244

   and rain 93–5, 213

   red colours 228–9

   shapes 244

   size of 243

   sounds of trees 225

   texture 244

   and wind 59, 223–4

Lee, Simon 291

lens clouds 163–5, 164, 198, 278

levant wind 64, 185

Levanter wind 185

Libya 103

lichens 80, 111, 133, 217, 222, 227, 246–8

light: brightness 77–8

   butterflies and 298

   from stars 326

   and frost 91

   fungi and 245

   halos 76–7

   red colours 228–30

lightning 125, 180, 303, 315–19

Liu Chi 225

local winds 184–208, 188, 193, 201

lofting smoke 120, 121

London 268, 308

looping smoke 119, 120, 121

Loughborough 146

Love Lakes, Dubai 174

low-pressure systems 46, 48–9

   cirrus clouds and 150, 155

   cross-winds rule 207–8

   hurricanes 321

   jet stream and 153

   wind direction and 61–2, 67

lunar calendar 329

mackerel skies 160–2

Maldives 276–7

Malus sieversii 229

mamma, storm clouds 311, 320

Manhattan 261–3, 269, 271–2

mares’ tails 150, 157

marigolds 236

Massenerhebung effect 219

matgrass 237, 237

Matterhorn 167

Maya 333–4

Mediterranean 64, 185, 189

Melanesia 275

Mendip Hills 101

metal, heat conduction 16–17

meteorological instruments 90

meteors 326–7

Mexico 231

Miami 105, 233

micro-seasons 241

microclimates 7–9

   coastal 284

   leaves 242–4, 244

   snow 132

   trees 210, 229

   woodlands 224

Micronesia 27, 275

microplastics, in rain 93

Middle East 268

midges 295, 299

Milky Way 327

mist 26, 136, 324–5

   see also fog

mistral 189

Molière 206

Monroe, Marilyn 263

Monroe Effect 263, 272

monsoon 62, 277–8

Montana 104

moon: full moon 77, 175

   halos 40, 50, 329

   weather lore 324–5

moschatel 241–2

Moscow 45

mosquitoes 299

mosses 133, 214, 215, 217, 224, 247, 248

mountains 7–8

   banner clouds 164, 166–7

   birds and 292–3

   cirrus clouds 148

   foehn winds 103–4

   fog 141

   gap winds 189–90

   land breezes 202

   lens clouds 163–5, 164, 198

   mountain breezes 204

   mountain wave winds 163, 164, 198

   plants 242

   rain 102, 103

   rain in deserts 178–83

   rotor clouds 164, 165–6

   rotor winds 166, 195–6, 283

   size of leaves 243

   snow 128, 132

   summit winds 197

   temperatures 303–4

   tree line 219, 242

   wind eddies 195

mud, marks of rain 95

Munster, George FitzClarence, Earl of 278

Museum of Modern Art, New York 171

mushrooms see fungi

Muslims 329

Namib desert 140

Nardus stricta 237, 237

Navajo people 331–2

navigation 186

   clouds and 27, 149, 281–2

   dead-reckoning 151, 152

   Pacific Islanders 184–5

   plants and 116, 233–4, 237, 237

   trees and wind direction 220–2

   in woodlands 110–12

needles, conifers 213–15

needles, snowflakes 127

Ness, river 84

Netherlands 247

Nevin, Edward 199–200

New York 261–3, 269, 271–2

Newfoundland 140

Nietzsche, Friedrich 257

Nikunau 275

nimbostratus clouds 41, 49, 51, 157

nitrogen 222

North America 54, 103, 234

Norway Spruce 215

Nova Scotia 284

oak trees 7, 11, 212–15, 218, 225

oases 173, 176

occluded fronts 54

oceans see seas and oceans

Okavango Delta 231

Oman 173, 175

Ora wind 204

orchids 244

Orion constellation 327, 328

overpasses, and snow 129–30

owls 294

Oyashi current 140

Pacific Islands 27, 184–5, 275–6, 279–82, 296, 326, 328

palm trees 212, 232, 249

Palmdale mountain wave 198

pannus clouds 96, 103

Papua New Guinea 43, 90, 231, 291

Park, Sooyong 332

Parmelia olivacea 133

patterns 171–2

pavements, and snow 130

Peak District 302

peat bogs 86

pebbles, in riverbed 258

Pelèr wind 204

peninsulas 195, 202, 283

Pennines 103, 190–1

Pennsylvania 81–2, 292–3

pennycress, Alpine 7

perennials 238–9

Peru 45

petrichor 93

Petworth Park, West Sussex 297

pheasants 292

phenology 240–2

Phoenicians 333–4

photosynthesis 245

pigeons 94–5, 293

pigs 17, 287

pile d’assiettes 165

pileus, storm clouds 310

pimpernel, scarlet 231–2

pine nuts 332

pine trees 8, 202, 232, 233

   cones 218

   and dew 80

   rain and 213, 214

   and snow 132

   sounds 225, 228, 253

   temperature differences 213

Pinney, Gavin Pretor 306n.

plane trees 220

planetary boundary layer 167–8

plants 231–44

   annuals and perennials 238–9

   in deserts 175–6, 235

   and dew 80

   and frost 90

   hardiness 239–40

   and navigation 233–4, 237, 237

   phenology 240–2

   and rain 231–2, 235–6

   salt and 284

   and snow 132, 133

   superblooms 235

   and temperatures 241–2

   see also flowers, leaves, trees and individual species

Pleiades constellation 328

plums 228

poker tells 156

Poland 133

polar air 43

polar jet 152

pollination, blackberries 249

Pollock, Jackson 171

pollution, microplastics 93

Pollution Effect 264, 265

Polynesia 275, 282

ponds 133, 142, 185

pooling smoke 120, 121

poplar trees 214, 222, 228

prey animals 288–9

puddles 8, 16, 56–7, 93

puffballs 245

Quercus ilex 212

rabbits 22, 287

radar, weather 101

radiation 16

radiation fog 136–9, 143

ragwort 20

railways 138

rain 92–109

   anatomy of raindrops 105–6

   animals warn of 285–6, 289–91

   blanket rain 97–100, 102, 104

   clouds 96, 97–9, 101–2, 105

   in deserts 172, 175–83, 235

   differences between land and sea 104

   drizzle 97, 105

   flash floods 180, 181, 291

   and fog 137

   forecasting 6, 30–1, 96

   formation of 105

   fronts 46–52, 48–9

   landscape and 100–3, 109

   and meteors 326–7

   monsoon 62, 277–8

   nimbostratus clouds 41, 157

   plants and 231–2, 235–6

   and puffball spores 245

   rain ghosts 97

   rain shadows 103

   rainbirds 94–5

   relief rain 100–3

   seasonal differences 104–5

   shelter under trees 212–15

   size of raindrops 106

   sounds of 93–4

   speed of raindrops 106, 126

   storm clouds 105, 307, 308

   taste 92–3

   virga 97, 103

   and visibility 143

   woodlands 7

   see also showers

rainbows 76, 334

Ramadan 170, 175

Ras Al Khaimah 179

rebel dunes 131, 131, 174

rebel winds 193–6, 196, 222

red: skies 54–5, 181

   trees and fruits 228–30

Red Sea 278

reed beds 86

Regent’s Park, London 220

relief rain 100–3

Rhyder, John 110–22

Rickmansworth 88

ridges, summit winds 197

rime ice 82–3

ripples, in ponds 185

Rise of Northwood 71–3

rivers: and fog 138, 142

   and frost 88

   pebbles in riverbed 258

   and snow 129–30

roads: black ice 83

   fog 134–5

   and snow 130

rocks: heat conduction 17

   hoodoos 252, 255–6, 255

   patterns in 171–2

   and snow 133

   sounds of rain 93

Rocky Mountains 92–3, 103, 253, 254, 298–9

roofs: sun pockets 15

   and weather 268–9, 269

   and winds 273–4

rooks 287

rotor clouds 164, 165–6

rotor winds 166, 195–6, 283

Royal Horticultural Society 239

Royal Navy 4

Royal Society 4

Rubus glaucus 248–9

Rundle, Mount 256–7

rush, soft 235

Russia 332

safety, lightning 317–18

Sahara 180

sailing see boats

salt 222, 247, 271, 284, 334

San Bernardino mountains 190

San Francisco 199–200

San Gabriel mountains 190

sand: airborne particles 70

   dunes 130–1, 177

   heat conduction 17, 37

   marks of rain 95

   windbreaks 174

sand spurrey, red 236

sandflies 299

Santa Ana winds 190

Santiago 150–1, 152

saturation 20–2

Scandinavia 254

scarps 195

scents: of humans 116–18, 121, 253

   humidity and 235–6

   land breezes 202

   of predators 288–9

   scent-tracking dogs 117–18, 119, 121

   of smoke 118

Schäffer, Mary 298–9

Scorpion constellation 328

Scotch mist 97

Scotland 77, 84–5, 100, 196, 197, 295

Scots Pine trees 213, 214, 233

search-and-rescue dogs 117–18, 119, 121

seas and oceans: advection fog 136–7, 139–41

   channel winds 191

   currents 45, 140, 151

   land breezes 202, 203

   local winds 198–202

   navigation 151, 184–5

   rain 104

   sea breezes 198–202, 201

   and seasons 277–8

   steam fog 141–2

   temperatures 44–5

   water vapour 43

   winter sea cumulus 283–4

Seasonal Affective Disorder 333

seasons: and climate 232–3

   and fog 139

   gap winds 189

   micro-seasons 241

   phenology 240–2

   rain 104–5

   seas and 277–8

   snow 128

   stars and 328–9

   storms 308–9

Seattle 105

seaweed 284

seeds 19–20, 59, 223, 231

Serratia marcescens 199–200

The Seven Year Itch (film) 263

shadows: Earth’s 330

   halos 76–7

   snow shadow patterns 259, 260

Sharjah desert 170–83

sheep 80, 288, 289, 332

sheet lightning 317

shelf clouds 311–12

shelter belts 222

Shepherd, Nan 332

showers 97–100, 106–9, 108

   after heatwaves 143

   aspect and 107

   cliff showers 107–9

   forecasting 6

   on hills 102–3

   plants and 235–6

   seasonal differences 104

   secondary showers 94–5

   snow showers 126, 127, 128

   towns and 106–7, 107

   woodlands and 106, 107

Shrewsbury Museum 96

Siberia 332

Sierra Nevada 103

Silene 236

singing, to deter bears 254

‘six degrees of separation’ 172–3

sky: colours 54–5

   see also air; atmosphere

Slocum, Joshua 219–20

slugs 288, 289–90, 297

smoke 118, 119–21, 120, 194

snow 126–33, 257–8

   animal tracks 80

   drifts 130–1, 131, 132

   falling from blue sky 126

   forecasting 128

   katabatic winds 205

   in mountains 132

   seasons 128

   settlement patterns 129–32, 131

   shadow patterns 259, 260

   snow line 132–3

   snowflakes 126–7, 130

   temperatures 128, 129

   and wind 130–2, 131

   windbreaks 174

   in woodlands 224

snowdrops 241

soil 17, 79, 129

Solent 282

sorrel, wood 236

sounds: bird calls 291–2, 294

   thunder 315–16

   of trees 224–8, 253

South America 248–9

South Downs 3, 80, 110–22, 281

Spain 163, 190, 232

spiders 18–19, 59, 182–3

spiders’ webs 76, 287–8

split winds 191–2, 193

spores, fungi 245, 246

spring flowers 241–2

spruce trees 194, 213, 214, 215, 225, 301

stability 22–3, 25, 35, 38

staking trees 71

Stanford University Hospital 199–200

Star Dust (airliner) 150–2

stars: brightness 327

   navigation by 181, 182

   and seasons 328–9

   twinkling 326

steam 21–2, 24, 84, 262–3, 262

steam fog 141–2

stone, heat conduction 270–1

storm bugs 300

storm clouds see cumulonimbus clouds

storms 302–23

   birds warn of 291

   ‘calm before a storm’ 315

   cold fronts 53

   hail 124–5

   hurricanes 320–3, 322

   lightning 315–19

   storm systems 319

   in summer 308

   tornadoes 311, 319–20, 323

   trees and 221

   warning signs 309

   in winter 308–9

   see also cumulonimbus clouds; thunderstorms

Strabo 189

stratocumulus clouds 169

stratosphere 303–4

stratus clouds 32, 33, 34, 39, 97–8, 101–2, 105, 126, 146

streets, Venturi Effect 264

sublimation, snow 259

subtropical jet 152

summit winds 197

sun: and blackberries 248

   and fog 138–9

   halos round 40, 50, 329

   heat from 18

   sun-loving plants 233–4

   sun pockets 13–15, 15

   sunrises and sunsets 161

   see also light

superblooms, flowers 235

Sussex 71, 100, 104, 143, 174, 303

swallows 300

sweating 289

Sweden 268

swifts 59

Switzerland 7–8, 167

sword grass 231

sycamore trees 248

Tarifa 163, 190

tarmac, snow on 129

Teisserenc de Bort, Léon 303

tells, cirrus clouds 156–7

temperatures: air masses 43, 44

   and altitude 303–4

   and civilisations 333–4

   condensation 96

   in deserts 173

   dew 74–6, 78–9

   dew point 21–2, 25, 38, 74–5

   and fog 139

   and fronts 47

   frost 86–8, 139

   and fungi 246

   insects and 295

   land and 44

   lightning 315–16

   plants and 241–2

   seas 44–5

   snow 126–7, 128, 129

   sun pockets 14–15, 15

   temperature inversions 26, 50, 84, 119–21, 142, 168, 198

   temperature swings 104

   water 23–4

   in woodlands 210–11

   see also heat

termites 296

Theophrastus of Eresos 60–1, 92, 138, 188, 193, 205

thermals 18–20, 35–9, 69, 200–1, 265, 280, 291

thistles 223, 236

Thompson, Hannah 71–2

thrips 300

thunder 316

thunderstorms 143, 157

   causes 24, 25, 41, 303

   hail 124

   hills and 102

   lightning 125, 180, 303, 315–19

   movement 313–15

   thrips and 300

   warning signs 309

   winds 312–15

Tierra del Fuego 220

tiger, Siberian 332

Tiger Beetles 332

Tivano wind 205

Tlaxcala 231

toads 287, 290

tornadoes 311, 319–20, 323

towns see cities and towns

tracks: animals 80–1, 95, 113

   scent-tracking dogs 117–18, 119, 121

tramontane wind 64, 206

Travis, Merle 254

trees 209–30

   channel winds 191

   coastal microclimates 284

   as compasses 111–12

   in deserts 177, 180

   and drought 217

   flagging 220–1, 284

   and fog 140, 141

   Heart Eddies 222, 223

   height 218

   lichens 247

   microclimates 210, 229

   missing trees 218–20

   and rain 93–5

   rebel winds 194, 196, 196

   red colours 228–9

   scents 202

   shelter from rain 212–15

   and snow 132–4

   sounds of 224–8, 253

   storm damage 221

   tree blanket 210–12

   tree line 219, 242

   wind bulge 215, 216, 223

   and winds 11–12, 11, 71–3, 72, 220–2

   see also woodlands and individual species

Tribulus terrestris 176

tropics: air masses 43

   clouds 36

   elfin wood 218–19

   hurricanes 320

   rainy season 105

   snow 132

   stars and seasons 329

   tree line 219

tropopause 303–4, 306

tuba, storm clouds 311, 320

tulips 236, 239

turbulence 68–70, 164, 165–6, 167, 193–5, 282–3

Turner, J. M. W. 226

TV weather forecasts 5–6

twinkling 326

typhoons 320

umbrella trees 212–15

United Arab Emirates 170–83

United Nations 31

United States of America 62–3, 174, 261–3

   disease and weather 331–2

   fog 134–5, 140

   germ-warfare tests 199–200

   hurricanes 323

   microplastic pollution in rain 92–3

   snow 129

   temperatures 104

   tornadoes 311, 319

   winds 263, 271–2

upslope fog 141

urban-canyon effect 263–5

urban heat islands 107

valleys: channel winds 190–1, 204

   fog 138–9

   and frost 87–90, 89, 91

   snow 132

   valley breezes 203–4

veering wind 64, 197

Venturi Effect 264

Venus 330

vineyards 334

Virazon wind 205–6

virga 97, 103

Virgil 285–6

visibility 136, 142–3

volcanic islands 276, 278–9

vortices 159, 166, 193, 272, 319

‘Walkie-Talkie’ building, London 268

walking speed, and wind 333

warm fronts 46, 47, 48–9, 50–2, 155, 158, 159

warm sector 48–9, 52

Washington, George 62–3

water: in deserts 173–4

   dew 74–6, 78–82

   drought 62, 217, 238

   hail 123–4

   harvested by lichens 246

   heat conduction 17

   latent heat 23–5

   rainbows 76

   temperatures 23–4

   waves 164–5

   see also ice; oceans and seas; rain

water vapour: condensation 21–2, 25, 74–5, 96, 271

   contrails 157–9

   dew point 96

   energy 23

   fog 136, 137–8

   frost 82

   source of 43

waterspouts 320

waves 164–5, 185

Weald and Downland outdoor museum 45–6

weather forecasts 4–9

   accuracy 4, 5

   by clouds 27, 29–31

   computers 5–7

   fallstreaks and 150

   fog as 138

   fronts 46

   Pacific Islands 275–6

   rain 96

   snow 128

weather radar 101

Wesley, Charles 53

Whaley Bridge 302

wheat 249

White, Gilbert 18, 85–6

Wigman, Luke 145–6

wildfires 104

williwaw wind 220

willow trees 58, 133, 213, 214, 234

winds 56–73

   air masses and 44

   animals and 288–9

   backing and veering 64, 67, 197

   birds and 292–3, 301

   blackberries and 248–9

   and buildings 272–4, 273

   changes with height 67, 67

   channel winds 190–1, 204, 263

   in cities 267, 269–70, 271–4, 273

   and cliffs 107–9

   coastline winds 282–3

   crop waves 249

   and cross-hatching 155

   cross-winds rule 206–8

   in deserts 182

   direction 10, 57, 60–6

   eddies 193–5, 222, 223, 265, 283

   effects of landscape 73

   foehn winds 103–4, 299

   and fronts 51, 52, 54

   gales 196, 221, 222

   gap winds 186–90, 188, 263–4

   gender differences and 333

   and grasses 236–7

   ground winds 57–8, 68

   gusts 68–70, 283

   and hedges 292–3, 293

   high-pressure systems 10

   and humidity 59–60

   hurricanes 320–3, 322

   insects and 298–300

   jet stream 150–5, 157

   laminar flow 68

   and lichens 247

   local winds 184–208, 188, 193, 201

   main winds 57

   Monroe Effect 263, 272

   monsoon 277–8

   mountain waves 163, 164, 198

   named winds 205–6

   picking up particles 69–70

   rebel winds 193–6, 196, 222

   rime ice 83

   rotor winds 166, 195–6, 283

   sailing boats 313–14

   and smoke 119–21, 120

   and snow 130–2, 131

   sounds of 57–8, 224–8

   split winds 191–2, 193

   summit winds 197

   thunderstorms 312–15

   tornadoes 319–20

   tree fans 11–12, 11, 216

   and trees 71–3, 72, 219, 220–2

   turbulence 68, 193–5

   urban-canyon effect 263–5

   Venturi Effect 264

   and walking speed 333

   wind bulge 215, 216, 223

   wind dance 59

   wind shear 150, 162

   wind towers 268

   windbreaks 174

   in woodlands 111–12, 114–16, 115, 223–4

   see also breezes

windsnap 221

windthrow 221

winter sea cumulus 283–4

wisdom, indigenous 172–3, 183

Wola people 43, 90, 231

wolf’s bane 243

Wolsieffer, Glen and Betty 81–2

women, and winds 333

wood, heat conduction 16–17

wood anemone 236

woodlands and forests: birds 291–2

   cloud formation 36–7, 36

   and fog 140–1

   forest floor 215

   insects 209

   microclimates 224

   and rain 7, 94, 106, 107

   red colours in 228–9

   sounds in 94, 224–8

   spring flowers 241–2

   sun pockets 14–15, 15

   tree blanket 210–12

   wedge effect 222

   and winds 71–3, 72, 111–12, 114–16, 115, 223–4

   woodland hygrometers 216–18

   see also trees

woodpeckers 95, 287, 294

wool, Gideon’s fleece 79–80

World Meteorological Organisation 31

‘X-ray fogs’ 143

yew trees 93, 114, 115

Yorkshire 291

Yorkshire Dales 190–1

yucca plant 231

zonda wind 103

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