INDEX of THE WALKER’S GUIDE TO OUTDOOR CLUES AND SIGNS

THE WALKER’S GUIDE TO OUTDOOR CLUES AND SIGNS

Index

Page numbers in italic refer to the illustrations

Aborigines 37, 178

acidity: soils 52, 101

tree bark 68

adders 255

Adonis Blue butterfly 247

aerials 289, 297

aerosols 125–6

Africa 249, 363

air see atmosphere; sky

aircraft 259, 260, 284, 354

contrails 145–7, 220

runways 277

airlight 201, 213

alarm calls 233–5, 238–41, 249–50

Aldebaran 218

alder trees 50, 51, 68, 78, 111

Alexander of Aphrodisias 131

Alexander the Great 386

Alexander’s dark band 131, 132

algae 108, 109–10, 298

algal blooms 110

lichens 112, 117

in snow 363

on trees 68, 109

Algol 355

alkaline soils 52, 101

Altair 175–6, 178

altitude: butterflies and 247

cinnamon and 274

hedges and 42

plants and 85, 123, 394

trees and 47–8, 53, 120, 330

altocumulus clouds 135

Amberley Brooks 24–5

anemones 106

angles, gauging 383, 384

animals 226–56, 375

barbed-wire fences 41

body language 250

butterflies 244–7

communication 228–30

corner gates 14, 40

faeces 35–6, 251, 278

fungi and 111, 112

and holly 51–2

insects 248–9

and latitude 362–3

livestock markets 284

mammals 249–55

need for salt 270, 335, 341

night vision 287–8

predicting earthquakes 364–5

sounds 226, 254–5

stone wall enclosures 41

in storms 364

tracks and trails 27, 28–9, 31–3, 32, 325

under trees 78

weather lore 159

see also birds, dogs, sheep etc

Antarctic 114

Antares 173, 173

antisolar point 128, 132, 200, 361

ants 248–9, 256, 341, 386

Apau Ping 329–30, 348

apple trees 78

Aquarius 181

Aquila 170, 172, 175, 178

arable crops 90–1

Arcturus 178

ash trees 63, 76, 220, 369

age 74–5

bark 68

coppicing 60

on flood plains 50, 51

leaves 71, 72

lichens 117

and lightning 151

roots 64

shade 300

and soil fertility 52–3

aspen trees 68

astronomy see moon; sun; planets; stars

asymmetry: curved streets 299

flowers 92–3, 92

trees 54, 59–60

Atlantic Ocean 137, 310, 313–14

Atlas Mountains 327–8

atmosphere: air pressure 159, 311

air quality 113–14, 125–6

sunlight 201

temperatures 136–7, 148

see also sky

Auriga 167–8, 167, 219–20

Australia 37, 178, 217, 339

auxins 55

avalanches 326–7

Avon Gorge 304

Backensto, Stacia 243

badgers 70

Ballycroy National Park 86–7

bananas (detours), on paths 224

barbed-wire fences 41

bark, trees 67–70

barking, dogs 223, 226, 251, 252

barley 90

barnacles 308

barrel cacti 358

Bartlett, Captain John 391

bats 159, 264–5, 266

beaches 283, 305–7, 310, 318–19, 321

bedstraw, heath 118

beech trees 78, 102, 224, 369

age 74–5

bark 68, 69

and lightning 151

roots 64

and soil 50, 52

bees 88, 158, 249, 335, 341, 349

bellflowers 106

Ben Nevis 390–1

Bergmannn’s rule 362–3

Best, Dr Anne 360

Betelgeuse 171, 175, 187

bicycle tracks 34

binocular vision 379–82

bioluminescence 356–7

birch trees: bark 68

as coloniser 63–4, 76, 111

and fungi 110–11

shape 54

and soil 52, 53

birds 230–44

bird plow 231–2, 237, 240

birds of prey 232, 235, 236, 239

birdsong and calls 232–41, 340–1

communication 227–9, 231, 231

danger signals 229–30, 233–5, 238–41, 249

flight patterns 273

folklore 272–3

and latitude 362

migration 147, 244

nests 244

roosting places 115

and tides 313

tracks 28, 32–3

weather lore 158, 159

see also owls, swallows etc

Blackadder Goes Forth 19

blackbirds 235, 236, 238

Blue Adonis butterfly 230

blue moon 216

blue tits 235, 238

bluebells 88, 106

Bodmin Moor 101

body language 250, 282–3

bog asphodel 102, 121

bogs 102–3, 224

bombs 277–8

boots 334–5

Borneo 10, 257–74, 258, 329–52

Bosham 311

bracken 77, 85–6, 101, 120

Brecon Beacons 14–15

brick houses 289

brick walls 41

Brikoff, Paul 149–50

bristlecone pines 75

Bristol 277, 313–14

Bristol Channel 314

Brittany 196

brittlegill, blackening 111

Brooke, James 273

buffer strips, fields 42

buildings 276, 288–92

bulls 253

bulrushes 105

Buncefield fuel depot 160

burrs, on tree bark 70

Bush, Jeremy and Jeff 20–1

buttercups 89

butterflies 230, 244–7, 256, 362

butterworts 121

buttress roots, trees 67, 333

buzzards 236

cacti, barrel 358

cafés 279, 299

calcium carbonate 102, 121, 255

calendar: flowering times 106

natural calendars 355–6

star calendars 176–81, 179–81

sun as 193–5, 194

calopaca lichen 307

campion, moss 122

Canada 39

Canary Islands 41, 92–3, 117

Canis Major 178

Capella 167–8, 167, 219–20, 348

Capricornus 180

Caribbean 356

carp 317

Carranza, Victor 353

cars, colour 37

Cassiopeia 163, 164–5, 165, 220

castles 299

Castor 219

cats: eyes 288

as predator 226–7, 229, 238–9

tracks 31, 32

caves 263–5

cedar, Western red 358

Cetus 181

chaffinches 241

chalk soils 50, 101, 230, 245, 255

Chankillo 194

Chequered Skipper butterfly 246

Chertan 174, 174

chestnut trees 69

chewing gum 114

chickens 241

chimneys 289

China 365

churches 292–6, 302

cinnamon 274

circumpolar stars 164–5, 177

cirrocumulus clouds 135

cirrostratus clouds 134, 143, 156

cirrus clouds 134, 143–4, 300

cities see towns and cities

clay soils 23

clematis 93, 101, 102

climbing plants 93–8

clocks: flower clocks 355

star clock 182–4, 183

sun as 196

cloudberries 90

Clouded Yellow butterfly 247

clouds 142–5

cirrostratus 134, 143, 156

cirrus 134, 143–4, 300

contrails 145–7

coronas 135

crepuscular rays 200

cumulonimbus 143, 144, 150

cumulus 143, 144–5, 146, 220, 222, 260, 262

rain showers 145

clover 82, 84

coal tits 238

coastal areas 304–14, 376–7

beaches 305–7

plants 83, 91

seaweeds 307–9, 309, 360–1

tides 311–14, 319

trees 58, 59

coconut palms 359

Colombia 353

colours: animal eyes 288

blue moon 216

cars 37

dogwoods 100

green flash 6, 198

leaves 70–1

lichens 115–16, 307, 308

light and 12

planets 191

Purkinje effect 188–9

rainbows 129–30, 131

rocky shores 307, 308

sand 305–6

shadows 201–2

sky 124–7, 201

smoke 126

soil 22–3, 341

stars 187

stone walls 40

sun 216

tree bark 68

Columbus, Christopher 169

Comma butterfly 246

communication 228–30

alarm calls 233–5, 238–41, 249–50

birdsong and calls 232–41

TV satellite dishes 259–60, 289

commuters 278, 279

compasses: churches as 292–3, 294–5

mosques as 295–6

plants as 88, 89–91, 92–3, 98–9, 357, 358

rocks as 17, 120

snow as 323, 324, 328

stars as 161–9

sun as 194–5

in towns and cities 289, 290, 297

trees as 49, 49, 68

conifers 60, 61

age 75, 76

and altitude 47–8

fires 77

fungal diseases 73

golden conifers 358

plantations 46

constellations 192

as a compass 163–8, 164–7, 170–6, 171–4

eye tests 185–6, 186

star calendar 178, 179–81

contour lines 15

contrails 145–7, 220

copper mines 354, 355

coppicing 60

copses 46

Coriolis effect 316

coronas 134–5

corvids 242–4

cow parsley 83

cowpats 111

cows 154–5, 159, 250, 253, 364

cranesbills 106

Crater 179

crepuscular rays 200

crescent (new) moon 206–8, 210–11, 216, 261

cress 90

crickets 248

crocuses 86

Cromer Ridge 362

cross-winds rule 141–2, 144, 147

crowberries 122

crows 233, 242–4, 266, 313

cumulonimbus clouds 143, 144, 150

cumulus clouds 143, 144–5, 146, 220, 222, 260, 262

curlews 313

Current Biology 366–7

currents: in rivers 316

tidal 313, 317

curved streets 299

Cwm Idwal 121

Cygnus 166, 166, 175

dace 317

daisies 84, 88, 89, 106, 156, 300

dandelions 156

Dartmoor 17–18, 45, 103

Davis, Wade 37

Dayak tribesmen 10, 257–74, 329–52

deciduous trees 47, 59, 61, 72

deer 51, 224–5, 251, 254, 335–6, 340

animal alerts and 231, 249

body language 250

hunting 273, 342–3

sounds 273

tracks 32, 39, 345–6

deergrass 103, 119–20

degrees, gauging 382, 384

Delos Island 306

Deneb 175–6

Denman’s Gardens, Sussex 88

deserts 67

flies 248

landmarks 18

light pollution 190

sand dunes 321–2, 322

taste of sand 360

tracks 25–6, 38–9

details, Get Sorted method 42–4

dew 155, 361

dewberries 90

diamond dust 148

diamonds 355

direction indicators see compasses

distances, gauging 379–91

disturbed ground 82, 111

ditches 76–7, 83, 87, 87

Dodge, Colonel Richard Irving 19–20

Dog Days 178

dog roses 93

dogs 238

aggression 251–2

barking 223, 226, 251, 252

and cows 253

eyes 288

faeces 35–6, 278

right- or left-pawed 252

in storms 364

tail-wagging 252–3

tracking scents 159

tracks 31, 32, 306

in US parks 253–4

dog’s mercury 91

dogwoods 100

doors, churches 293

dragonflies 248

duckweed 105

Duisberg-Essen, University of 250

dunes 306–7, 321–4, 322

dust particles, in sky 126–7

Earth, curvature 201, 389

Eartham Wood 219

earthquakes 116, 364–5

earthshine 216

east, finding 169–72

Easter Island 116

eclipses 187–8, 366

Eden Project 357

edges: Get Sorted method 40–2

woodland 45–7

Edinburgh 297–303, 301, 302

eelgrass 309

Egypt 178

El Cajon Border Patrol 38

elder 68, 81, 255

electricity lines 43–4, 276

elm trees 52–3, 60, 67, 68

emeralds 353

equator 168, 195, 259–60

equinoxes 194, 194

erosion 16–17, 16, 17, 21–2, 324

estuary seaweed 360–1

Ethiopia 178

evergreen trees 53, 75

explosions 160, 277–8

eyes: binocular vision 379–82

birds 242

eye contact 282

looking at moon 214–16, 215, 261

night vision 188–9, 224, 287–8

reindeer 356

stars as eye tests 186–8

fabrics, knap 204

facial recognition, by birds 243

faeces 35–6, 251, 278

farms, corner gates and 40

Faroe Islands 391

Fata Morgana (optical illusion) 6

fences 41, 76

ferns 91, 118

fertilisers 81, 104, 110

fertility, soils 52–3, 84–5, 104

field maple 51

fields: buffer strips 42

corner gates 14, 40

weeds in 91

fingers: gauging distances with 379–83, 384

sun and moon size illusion 198-200, 199

fir trees 359

fires: blue moons 217

firebreaks 46

fungi and 111

trees and 77–8

fireworms 356

fish 310, 317

fishing 271, 317

flagged trees 58, 59

flags 297

Flammarion, Camille 205, 226

flash floods 22

flax flowers 106

flies 248, 345

flints 41

flood plains 50

floods 22, 25

flowers: beside roads 287

flower clocks 355

light and 88–91

orientation 88–9, 92–3

soil types and 40

temperature and 86

weather lore 156

see also plants

fly agaric 110–11

fog 7, 147–8

fogbows 130–1

foghorns 234

footprints 25–6, 29–31, 33–5, 37, 119, 306, 325

footwear 334–5

forget-me-nots 88

fossils 306

fox-hunting country 42

foxes 231, 288

foxgloves 82, 89

France 391

Fritillary butterflies 246, 247

frogs 226, 258, 263, 342, 365

fronts, weather 134, 141, 143–4, 157

frost 85, 155

fruit: distribution on trees 73–4

light and 90

Fucus ceranoides 361

fungal diseases 73

fungi 78, 108, 110–12, 334, 360

gas leaks 242

gates, corner 14, 40

gauging distances 379–91

geese 244

Gemini 219, 223

geobotanical prospecting 354–5

geology 20–2, 40, 118

Germany 280, 283

Get Sorted method 14–44

Gibbs, Peter 160

glaciers 16–17, 16, 17, 21, 120, 302, 362

glass, in windows 290

glow-worms 158

gold 318–19, 355

golden conifers 358

gorse 101

gradient illusion 12–13

granite 21, 101, 305

Grant, Bob 149

grapevines 90

grass and grasses: fires 77

grazing animals 336

heiligenschein 361

stripes on lawns 202–4, 203

tracks on 30

and water 102–3

wind and 103–4, 104

graveyards 293–4, 302

Greece 306

green flash 6, 198

ground ivy 81

guillemots 362

Guugu Yimithirr people 339

Haicheng earthquake 365

hair, and humidity 155–6

Hairstreak butterflies 246

hairstreaks, cirrus clouds 143, 144

halos 134, 143, 156–7

‘handrailing’ 343

hands: gauging distances with 379–83, 384

sun and moon size illusion 198-200, 199

hares 35

Hastings 391

hawk call 235, 241

hawthorns 56, 68, 73–4, 76, 151

hazel trees 51, 60, 117

headhunters, Borneo 273

hearing, night walks 218–19, 221, 223, 225

heather 77, 87, 87, 120

hedges: changes with altitude 42

fox-hunting country 42

sun and 41

heights, gauging 382, 384

heiligenschein 361

helicopters 222

hen of the woods 111

Herb Robert 40

herbicides 84

Hercules 186–7, 186, 188

Hevelius, Johannes 133–4, 134

hickories 64

hills: differences between sides 13

gradient illusion 12–13

lighter colour in distance 11, 12, 125

night walks 214

shape 15–16

in towns 276

treeline 47–8

views from 9–11

Himalayan balsam 102

Hindu temples 196

holly 51–2, 68, 154

Holly Blue butterfly 247

honesty (plant) 100

honey fungus 360

honeysuckle 93, 94, 245

horizon: colour of sky 11, 125, 126

crepuscular rays 200

distance to 389–91

finding latitude 168, 169

size of sun and moon 198–200, 199

sunrise 193–4

sunset 197–8, 201

hormones, tree growth 55

hornbeam 52

horses 41, 111, 288

horseshoe vetch 230

Houghton Bridge 81

houses 288–91

human sextant 382, 384

humidity 155–6

Hyde Park 55

Hydra 179

hydrangeas 101

ice: roches moutonnées 16, 17, 120

and trees 58

Iceland 244, 391

illusions, optical 6, 198–200, 199, 316

India 217, 280

Indonesia 26–8, 35, 306

industry 288

inkcap, shaggy 111

insects 88, 158, 248–9, 264–5

see also butterflies

intelligence, birds 242–4

Inuit 36, 106, 123, 178

inversion refraction 6

inversions, temperature 5–7, 148, 159–60, 198

‘invisible snakes’ 298

IRA 277

Ireland 59, 86–7, 244

iron 22–3, 303, 360

Iroquois people 67–8

islands 310

Isle of Wight 254, 363–4

Italy 283

ivy 83, 93–8, 95, 97, 220, 247

jays 233, 242

Jerusalem 196

Jews 196

jungles 18, 333–52

Jupiter 162, 191, 218, 224

Kalahari 37

Kalimantan 259, 260–74

katabatic winds 139

Kelvin waves 313

kestrels 232

Kew Gardens 113–14

Kilimanjaro 85

La Palma 92–3, 117

Lafitau, Father Joseph-François 67–8

Lake District 22, 43, 119

lakes 314, 316

laminar flow, winds 139–40

landmarks 10–11

Langley, Jim 118, 120–3

Lanzarote 41

larch trees 46, 50, 53, 68

Large Blue butterfly 256

latitude: animals and 362–3

finding 168–9, 195, 382

lavender 90

lawns: clover in 82

stripes 202–4, 203

lead mining 354–5

leaves 379

colours 70–1

holly 51–2

ivy 94–5, 95, 97

sun and 71, 72

temperature and 86

timing 72–3

traveller’s palm 357, 357

tree asymmetry 54, 59–60

trees 70–4, 71

variegated leaves 358

leeches 336, 348

Leo 174, 174, 192, 398

lettuce, prickly 98–9, 99

Libra 176–7, 180

Libya 25–6, 248

lichens 91, 108, 112–17, 113, 264, 289

and air quality 113–14

on churches 294, 295

colours 115–16, 307, 308

and light 112, 114, 115–16

on rocks 121–2, 307, 308, 319

sensitivity to minerals 355

in towns and cities 298, 302

on trees 68–9

light: airlight 201, 213

and colours 12

crepuscular rays 200

earthshine 216

green flash 6, 198

heiligenschein 361

and leaf colour 70–1

lichens and 112, 114, 115–16

light pollution 184, 189–90, 222

moonlight 210–11, 213–14, 319–20

optical illusions 6

and perspective 11, 12

phototropism 55, 93–8, 97

plants and 87–100

predicting earthquakes 365

prickly lettuce and 98–9, 99

rainbows 127–32, 128, 132

reflections in puddles 275–6

refraction in water 316–17

scintillation 135–6

starlight 213

stripes on lawns 202–4, 203

sunlight 201–4

and tracks 29–31, 30

and trees 46

see also sun

lightning 111, 149–51

lightning conductors 295

lime trees 52, 67, 68, 77, 78

limestone 21, 263–5

limpets 356

Linnaeus, Carl 112, 355

Linum cartharticum 361

listening for silence exercise 237–8

Llyn Ogwen 118

local winds 138–40

logging 70

Lombardy poplars 67

London 114, 278–9, 284, 286, 290, 291

Long Alango 271–2

Long Layu 329–30, 338, 347–8, 350–1

loosestrife, purple 102

lords-and-ladies 83

Lowestoft 313–14

Lulworth Skipper butterfly 245

lunar eclipses 366

Lyme disease 336

Lymington 309

Lyra 175

McGrath, Thomas 39

magnesium deficiency 101

magpies 234, 242, 243, 299, 303

Majorca 54–5

Mali 360

mallows 86

mammals 249–55

map lichen 116, 121–2

maps 15, 19, 42–4, 261–2

marble 306

mares’ tails 143–4

marigolds 106

marjoram 90

market towns 284

marram grass 306

Mars 191

mass dials 294

matgrass 103, 119

Mecca 295–6

Mediterranean 53, 139, 313

Mercury 191

metal detectors 318–19

meteor showers 184–5, 223, 395–6

midday 193, 195, 196

midges 85, 248

midsummer 193, 194

midwinter 193, 194

migration: birds 147, 244

butterflies 247

milkcap, lilac 111

mining 354, 355

mint 90

Mintaka 170, 171, 222, 223

mirages 6

mistletoe 78

mists 155

Mitchell, Christopher 85–6

mobile phones 280–1, 330–1

monkey puzzle trees 75

monkeys 254, 265, 341, 344–5

moon 124, 205–17, 373

blue moon 216

casting shadows 212, 214, 223

coronas 134–5

eclipses 366

eye tests with 214–16, 215

finding south 397–8

full moon 206, 210–11, 217

halo around 134, 143, 156–7

influence on weather 217

moonlight 210–11, 213–14, 319–20

mountains on 365–6

new moon 206, 210, 211, 216, 261

night walks 221–2

phases of 206–12, 207, 261, 268

rising and setting 210, 212–13

shadows on 211

size 198–200, 199

and sleep patterns 366–7

and tides 311–13

weather lore 156–7

moonbows 131

moonshiners 236–7

moorland 101

moraine, terminal 362

morning glory 106

mosques 295–6

mosquitoes 265, 266, 269

mosses 91, 108–9, 118, 289

moths 288

motorways 284, 286

Mount Everest 390

Mount Stuart 149–50

Mount Toubkal 327–8

mountain avens 106

Mountain Ringlet butterfly 247

mountains: distance to horizon 390–1

fog 147

on the moon 365–6

shadows 200–1

snow 325–6

wave forests 358–9

winds 139

mud: colour 22–3, 341

texture 23

tracks in 28–31, 33–5

Munsell, Albert 22

muntjac deer 273

murder 38

Muslims 295–6

mustard 90

nail fungus 111

Naismith’s rule 389

names: fungi 112

houses and roads 291

places 43, 291–2

plants 91, 102

Native Americans 19–20, 67–8, 360

neap tides 312, 319

nests, birds 244

nettles 80–1, 104, 121, 246

New England 62

New Forest 77

Newton, Isaac 135

Niall, Ian 217

nieves penitentes 363

night vision 188–9, 224, 287–8

night walks 210–12, 214, 218–25, 319–20, 377

nightshade 91, 93

nitrogen deficiency 101

noise shadows 298, 300

Norfolk 362

north, finding 212, 250, 347–8

North Pole 162, 163, 197

North Star (Polaris) 162–9, 164, 182, 220, 223, 347–8, 382

Northern Cross 166, 166

Northern Ireland 391

Norway 355

nuclear weapon tests 6

numbering: houses 291

roads 284–7, 285

Nus (Dayak guide) 331–50

oak trees: age 74–5

bark 68

burrs 70

fungi 111

leaves 72

lichens 114

and lightning 151, 152

roots 64, 67

and soil 50, 52

sun and wind effects 53, 59–60

oceans see sea

oil-producing crops 90

oil spills 307

‘old man’s beard’ 101

Oman 38–9

opposition effect, moonlight 211

optical illusions 6, 198–200, 199, 316

Orion 170, 171, 175, 176–7, 179, 187, 222, 262–3

otters 288

overall character, Get Sorted method 20–3

owls 159, 218, 220, 221, 233

oxlips 107

oystercatchers 313, 319, 356

pace counting 385–8

Pacific Ocean 36, 104, 194, 310

Painted Lady butterfly 247

palm trees 357, 357, 359

parallax 380–2

parasites 336

parks 288

parsley 90

pasqueflowers 107

paths 33–4, 35, 119–20, 224

pavements 287, 300

Peacock butterfly 246, 247

pedestrians 280, 287

Pen y Fan 15

Penan Dayak 331

penumbra 202

people predictions 278–83, 298

periwinkles 255, 268

Perseus 355

personal space 282–3

perspective, light and 11, 12

Peru 194

pH values, soils 52, 101

pheasants 230

phosphate 80–1, 104

phototropism 55, 93–8, 97

Pickering, WH 214

pickpockets 281–2

pigeon plow 231–2, 237, 240

pigeons 227–9, 231–2, 240

pigs 254–5

pimpernel, scarlet 156

pine martens 288

pine trees: age 75

bark 68, 114

fungal diseases 73

and lightning 151

roots 64, 65

shape 60

and soil 52, 53

pineappleweed 81–2, 81

pink snow 363

Pisces 176–7

place names 43, 291–2

plane trees 300

planets 135, 136, 162, 175, 190–2

plantains 82

plantations 46, 63

plants 79–107, 374–5

and altitude 394

butterflies and 245

colonisers 83–4

as compasses 88, 89–91, 92–3, 98–9, 357, 358

garden escapees 100

geobotanical prospecting 354–5

light and 87–100

mineral deficiencies 100–1, 102

mosses 108–9

names 91, 102

on paths 119–20

phototropism 55, 93–8, 97

in rivers 316

and salt 304–5

seasonal changes 105–7

shade-tolerant 91, 394

signs of people 80–5

and soils 101

sun-loving 393–4

and temperature 85, 86

timekeeping 106–7

and tracks 36–7

and water 102–3, 105

weather lore 156

and winds 85–6

see also flowers; trees

Pleiades 220, 263

The Plough 163–4, 164, 182, 185–6, 186, 223, 224

poaching 217, 229–30

poinsettias 106

poisonous plants 84

Polaris (North Star) 162–9, 164, 182, 197, 220, 223, 347–8, 382

pollarding 60

pollination 88

Pollux 219

ponds 314, 316–17

pondweed 79, 105

poplars 67, 73, 78

poppies 82

Portsmouth 312–13

potassium deficiency 101

predators 232, 233–5, 239, 241, 250, 310

primroses 106

proprioception 380

prospecting, geobotanical 354–5

proteas 92–3, 92

pubs 42, 246

puddles 41, 275–6

purging flax 361

Purkinje effect 188–9

Purple Emperor butterfly 245

pylons 43–4

rabbits 251, 252

animal alert system 231

body language 250

droppings 35

and elder bushes 255

tracks 31, 32, 39

radio waves 6–7

ragwort, Oxford 83–4

railway lines 23–4, 83–4

railway stations 277, 278, 279, 281

rain: in rainforests 345

showers 145

weather lore 155–6

rainbows 127–32, 128, 132, 152–3

rainforests 333–52

rapeseed 90

Ravenala madagascariensis 357, 357

ravens 242

Rayleigh scattering 11

Red Admiral butterfly 246

reflections 290, 311, 314, 315

refraction, at sunset 197–8

reindeer 106, 123, 356

reptiles 255

restaurants 278–80, 298, 299

Rhodes, Dusty 149

rhododendrons 52, 86

Rinjani, Gunung 26–8, 35

ripples, on lakes and rivers 314, 317

rivers 314–16

in Borneo 261–2, 267–71

Dayak navigation and 338–40, 343

direction of flow 17–18

flood plains 50

gauging width 379, 387–8, 388

in place names 291

plants beside 102

rapids 258, 269, 332

roads 23–4, 24, 283–8

and age of towns 301, 302

curved streets 299

dangerous places 287

driver location signs 286–7, 286

finding towns 25

names 291

numbering 284–7, 285

road signs 284

Roman roads 43

salting 83

robins 234, 235, 238

roches moutonnées 16, 17, 120

rocks 118

erosion 21–2, 324

lichens on 116, 121–2

overall character 20–2

roches moutonnées 16, 17, 120

sinkholes 20–1

striations 17, 17, 120

rocky shores 307, 308

rodents 325

Roman roads 43

roofs 289, 290

rooks 242

roots: ivy 96, 97

trees 64–7, 66, 333

rosemary 90

routes, Get Sorted method 23–5

rowan trees 68, 72

rushes 103, 119, 121, 316, 354

Sagittarius 180

Sahara 18, 25–6, 67, 248, 324, 360

St Elmo’s fire 151

St Ives 115

St John’s wort 105

Saiph 171, 175

salmon 317

salt: animals’ need for 270, 335, 341

and plants 83, 91, 304–5

salt shadow effect 305

in soil 23

taste of sand 360

and trees 50, 58

in winds 304–5

San bushmen 37

sand: beaches 305–7

dunes 306–7, 321–4, 322

particles in sky 126–7

taste of 360

tracks in 28–31, 35

sandy soils 23, 53, 67

satellite dishes 259–60, 289, 297

Saturn 191

saxifrages 106, 122–3

scat (animal faeces) 35–6, 251, 278

scents: air pressure and 159

birds’ sense of smell 242

night walks 223–4

schools 279–80

scintillation 135–6

Scorpius 173, 173, 176–7, 180

Scotch Argus butterfly 247

Scotland 284, 306, 308, 314

Scots pines 52, 60, 65

script lichens 116–17

scurvy 100

scurvygrass, Danish 83

sea: bioluminescence 356–7

fish 310, 317

reflections of sun 311

surface 309–10

temperatures 137

tidal currents 313, 317

tides 311–14, 319

see also beaches; coastal areas

sea bindweed 304

sea breezes 138–9, 142

sea plantain 83

sea rocket 308–9

sea-spurrey 83

seagulls 158, 303, 313

seals 39

seasons: plants 105–7

star calendars 176–81, 179–81

seaweeds 307–9, 309, 360–1

Second World War 26, 247, 277

sedges 103

‘seet’ call 235, 241

sentinel method, communication 228–9, 231

Seven Sisters 220

sewage pipes 276–7, 306

sextants 195

shade, plants in 361, 394

shade leaves, sun and 71, 72

shadows: as a calendar and compass 195

cast by moon 212, 214, 223

as a clock 196

colours 201–2

crepuscular rays 200

eclipses 366

and height of sun 129

heiligenschein 361

on moon 211

mountain shadows 200–1

in towns and cities 298, 300

shape: Get Sorted method 14–20

trees 53–60, 56–8

sharks 310

sheep 84, 102, 120, 121, 223, 240, 251

shells 305–6

shock waves 6

shooting stars 184–5, 223, 395–6

shops 278–81, 299

showers 145

silence, listening for 237–8

silver 355

silver fir trees 65

Silver-Spotted Skipper butterfly 247

Singapore 357

sinkholes 20–1

Sirius 162, 178, 179

sky 373

airlight 201, 213

colour 124–7, 201

distance to horizon 391

rainbows 127–32, 128, 132, 152–3

red skies 154

scintillation 135–6

size of sun and moon 198–200, 199

sun dogs 133, 134, 134

sunsets 197–8, 216

see also atmosphere; clouds

slate 306

sleep, and the moon 366–7

slopes: avalanches 326

butterflies and 230, 247

crops on 90

gradient illusion 12–13

in moonlight 214, 221

trees on 13, 46, 67, 72

winds 139

smells see scents

Smith, Adam 298

smog 7

smoke: colour 126

temperature inversions 5, 6–7

snails 255

snakes 255, 265, 348, 365

snow 219, 221, 237, 324–8

algae in 363

avalanches 326–7

‘banners’ 325

colour of shadows 201–2

as a compass 323, 324, 328

melting 324

nieves penitentes 363

revealing sewage pipes 276–7

size of flakes 325

snow wheels 327, 327

sublimation 325

sunballs 326–7

and temperatures 148

tracks in 28, 325

waymarking in 359–60

wind and 321, 323, 324, 325–6

snowdrops 100

soils 20

colour 22–3, 341

disturbed ground 82, 111

fertility 52–3, 84–5, 104

pH values 52, 101

plants and 101

stability 23

texture 23

trees and 50–1, 52–3

solar eclipses 366

solar panels 289

solar system 190–1

solstices 194, 194, 195

songbirds 235–41

soot 288

sorrel, wood 121

SORTED method 14–44

sounds: animals 226, 254–5

birdsong and calls 232–41

night walks 218–19, 221, 223, 225

noise shadows 298, 300

temperature inversions 5–7, 159–60

south: butterflies and 247

finding 172–6, 193, 212, 213, 250, 262, 397–8, 398

South Carolina 310

south celestial pole 397–8, 398

South Downs 148

soya beans 106

Speckled Wood butterfly 246, 362

spiders 288

spring tides 303, 312–13

spruce trees 53, 63, 65, 75, 151, 359

squirrels 249, 250, 340–1

star-of-Bethlehem 79

stars 161–92, 340

as calendars 176–81, 179–81

as a clock 182–4, 183

colours 187

dimming 355

distinguishing planets from 191

as eye tests 186–8

finding east and west 169–72

finding latitude 168–9

finding north 161–8, 347–8

finding south 172–6, 397–8, 398

heliacal rising 177–8

light from 213

and moon 208

night walks 219–20, 222–3, 224

twinkling 135–6, 191

stinging nettles 80–1, 104, 121, 246

stone: churches 292

walls 40–1, 76

see also rocks

stonechats 234

stonecrop, English 118

storms 363–4

thunderstorms 143, 149–51

and trees 61–4, 62

and waves 310

weather lore 158, 159

strangers, body language and 282–3

strawberries 90, 106

streets see roads

striations 17, 17, 120

stripes, on lawns 202–4, 203

sulphur deficiency 101

sulphur dioxide 50, 111

Summer Triangle 175–6

sun 193–204, 372

antisolar point 128, 132, 200, 361

aureoles 126

as a calendar and compass 193–5, 194

as a clock 196

colour 216

and colour of sky 124–6

coronas 134–5

crepuscular rays 200

eclipses 366

green flash 6, 198

halo around 134, 143, 156

and hedges 41

and moon 206–8, 210–11

and puddles 41

seasonal changes in plants 105–7

shadows 201–2

size and shape 197–200, 199

solar system 190–1

star calendars 176–81

sun-loving plants 393–4

sunbeams 200

sunlight 201–4

sunrise 193–4, 194, 310–11

sunset 6, 154, 193, 194, 196–8, 201, 216, 311, 366

and tides 311, 313

and tree leaves 71, 72

and tree shapes 53, 54–5, 56, 59

in the tropics 262

and woods 41–2

see also light

sun dogs 133, 134, 134

sunballs 326–7

sundials 196, 294

sunscreen 68

supernumerary bows 131, 132

swallows 158, 265

Swallowtail butterfly 246

Sweden 354

Syahdian, Muhammad (Shady) 260–70, 274, 329–39, 346–51

sycamores 50, 52–3, 68, 73, 111

synagogues 196

syzygy 187–8

tank tracks 26

tar spot fungus 111

target enlargement 36

Taurus 181, 218, 222, 224

temperature inversions 5–7, 148, 159–60, 198

temperatures 148–9

and animal size 363

butterflies and 246–7

influence of moon 217

insects and 248

night walks 221, 223

plants and 85, 86

rainbows and 130

seasonal differences 136–7

snakes and 255

and snow 325

sunset 197–8

and tides 311

and timing of leaves 72–3

tents, guy ropes 66

terminal moraine 362

terrorism 277–8

thermometers 86

thieves 281–2

thistles 82, 83, 84

thunderstorms 143, 149–51

thyme 90, 118, 249, 256

tick effect, tree shape 55, 56

ticks 85

tidal currents 313, 317

tidal rivers 18

tides 303, 311–14, 319

time: flower clocks 355

lichens and 116

measuring distances 388–9

natural calendars 355–6

plants and 106–7

star calendars 176–81, 179–81

star clocks 182–4, 183

sun as a calendar 193–5, 194

sun as a clock 196

trees and 74–7

Titus (Dayak guide) 331–50

toadflax, ivy-leafed 99–100

toads, natterjack 307

toadstools 110–11

Tortoiseshell butterflies 246, 247

towers, churches 293

towns and cities 275–96, 376

buildings 276, 288–92

butterflies in 247

curved streets 299

dog turds 35–6, 278

Edinburgh 297–303, 301

infrastructure 276–8

lichens in 114

light pollution 189–90

names 291–2

pedestrians 280

people predictions 278–83, 298

roads 25, 283–8

winds 276, 297

tracking 25–38, 306, 325

traveller’s palm 357, 357

treasure hunters 318–19

trees 45–78, 374

age 74–5, 76

algae on 109–10

and altitude 47–8, 53, 120, 330

asymmetry 54, 59–60

bark 67–70

climbing plants on 93–8

as compasses 49, 49, 68, 330

coppicing 60

distribution of fruit 73–4

and fire 77–8

fungi on 334, 360

golden conifers 358

height 48–9, 49, 53

as indicators 50–3

leaves 70–4, 71

lichens on 114

and light 46

and lightning 151

logging 70

night walks 220, 224

plantations 46, 63

pollarding 60

rings 69, 74

roots 64–7, 66, 333

shape 53–60, 56–8

snow on 323, 324

sociability 52

and soils 50–1, 52–3

storms and 61–4, 62

stumps 61–2, 62, 70

suckers 60

and time 74–7

treeline 47–8

variegated leaves 358

waymarking 270, 359–60

wind effects 48–9, 49, 53, 55–9, 57, 58, 69–70

woodland 45–9

trentepohlia algae 109–10, 117

Tributsch, Helmut 365

trig points 10

tropics, sun in 262

tropospheric ducting, radio waves 6–7

trout 317

Tuareg 18, 25–6, 248, 360

tulips 86

turkey vultures 242

TV satellite dishes and aerials 259–60, 289, 297

tyre tracks 34

underground railways 277, 282–3

Union Oil Company of California 242

United States of America: Border Patrol 38

dogs in parks 253–4

highway numbering 284

location of shops 279

moonshiners 236–7

sharks 310

storms 61

trees 54

waymarking 359–60

valleys: erosion 16–17, 16

flood plains 50

Vega 175–6, 186, 186, 219, 223

vegetation see flowers; plants, trees

Venus 162, 191–2

verrucaria lichen 307

views 9–11, 47

Vikings 391

vineyards 90

violets 106

Virgo 179

Viscaria alpina 354

Viscaria Copper Mine 354

vitamin C 100

volcanoes 26–8, 35, 217, 302, 306

voles 251

vultures 242

waiting rooms 283

Wales 14–15, 21, 40, 116, 118–23, 292

walking speed, in towns and cities 280

walls 40–1, 76

Walmart 281

walnut trees 64, 68

wasps 249

water: and algae 109

erosion 16, 21–2

floods 22, 25

mosses and 108–9

plants and 102–3, 105

plants as depth gauge 105

puddles 41, 275–6

rainbows 130, 131, 132

reflections in 311, 314, 315

rivers, lakes and ponds 314–16

in soil 22

and tree height and shape 53, 54

see also sea

water-crowfoot 105

water lilies 105, 316

watermelon snow 363

wave forests 358–9

waves 310

waymarking 270, 359–60

Weald and Downland Museum 89

weather 136–7, 373

birds and 237

clouds 142–5

and colour of sky 125

fog 147–8

fronts 134, 141, 143–4, 157

influence of moon 217

rainbows and 129

scintillation and 136

storms 149–51, 158, 159, 310, 363–4

temperature inversions 5–7, 148, 159–60, 198

temperatures 148–9

weather lore 152–60

see also winds

weather vanes 294

weather winds 140–2

wedge effect, trees 48–9, 49

weeds, in fields 91

west, finding 169–72

wheat 90

wheatears 255

White Admiral butterfly 245

wildebeest 249

wildfires 46

willow trees 50, 51, 68, 102, 369

windows 289–91, 293, 295

winds 137–42

aircraft and 147, 277

animals and 250–1

in cities 276

cows and 154–5

cross-winds rule 141–2, 144, 147

effects on trees 69–70

and grasses 103–4, 104, 119

kestrels as wind vanes 232

and leaf debris 42

and leaf fall 73

local winds 138–40

on mountains 139

and plants 85–6

prevailing winds 13

salt in 304–5

and sand dunes 306–7, 321–4, 322

and sea’s surface 310

and snow 321, 323, 324, 325–6

sounds and 219

stone wall enclosures 41

storms 61, 62–3

in towns 297

and tree roots 65–7, 66

and trees 48–9, 49, 53, 55–9, 57, 58

wave forests 358–9

weather winds 140–2

Wistman’s Wood, Dartmoor 45

woodlands 45–9

age of 46–7, 62

ancient woodland 46, 62, 83

bluebells 88

boundaries within 76–7

edges 45–7

fires 77–8

flowering times 106

foxgloves 82, 89

fungi 110–11

ivy 96–8

lichens in 114

night walks 223–5

shade-loving plants 91

storm effects 61–3

sun and 41–2

tree canopies 75

wave forests 358–9

waymarking 270

wind effects 48–9, 49

see also trees

woodruff 82–3, 91

Woolfson, Esther 243–4

worts 91

wrens 235, 239–40, 249, 369

xanthoria lichens 115–16, 295, 302, 307

yew trees 52, 54, 56–7, 224

Young, Jon 240

zebras 249

zenith 162

Zosma 174, 174