The Natural Navigator by Tristan Gooley

Cover Photo

Index

Abera Beniata, 185
Africa, 8, 75, 129, 196, 240
Aipilik, 70
aircraft
contrails, 207
crashes, 228–9
pilots, 12
Alaska, 16, 239
Alderney, 176
Alexander the Great, 229, 232
algae, 55, 68
Algeria, 63
Alps, 38–9, 99, 204
al-Sufi, 136
Amazon, river, 178
American Indians, 34
Amundsen, Roald, 68, 209
Anaximander, 35
anchors, 173
Andes, 228–9
Anglo-Saxon literature, 103
animals, 211–25, 239
see also birds
Antarctic, 26, 30, 34, 40, 67–8, 134, 179, 219
Antarctic Circle, 81–2, 89
ants, 39, 98, 214
Anuta, 173
Arabian Peninsula, 40, 65
Arabs, 103, 115, 235
Arago, François, 193
Arbela, battle of, 232
Arcandam, 132
Arctic, 12, 34, 67–8, 70, 76, 89, 134, 136, 179, 219, 221
Arctic Circle, 81–2, 89, 236
Aristarchus of Samos, 73
Aristotle, 179
asterisms, 115, 122
asteroids, 133
astrology, 131–2
astronomy, 19, 73, 104, 131–2
Athens, Tower of the Winds, 197–8
Atlantic Ocean, 2, 130, 158, 167, 171, 176, 189
North Atlantic, 8, 71, 89, 195, 219
South Atlantic, 102
Atlas, statue of, 107
Augustus, Emperor, 29
auroras, 134
Australian Aboriginals, 11, 27, 34, 119, 124
Austria, 138, 205
auxins, 48
Azores high pressure system, 195
Aztecs, 118, 121
Babylonians, 130
bacteria, 221
Baffin Island, 136
Bagnold, R A, 62
Baker, Dr Robin, 220–1
barchan dunes, 65, 68
Barnard Castle, 220
beaches, 178
Beck, Horace, 25, 187
Bede, Venerable, 176
Bedouin, 40, 122
bees, 16, 211, 214–15, 221, 223–4
beetles, 214–15
Beijing, 58
bematists, 229
Bembridge, 1
Berlin, 118
Bible stories, 8, 103, 131, 181
Biligiriranga Hills, 38
biodynamics, 139
birds, 181–4, 212–23, 225, 243
albatrosses, 20–1, 182–3
boobies, 183–4
Brent geese, 218–19
bristle-thighed curlew, 218
chickens, 222
frigate birds, 182–3, 217
fulmars, 182
gannets, 214, 239
golden plover, 218
long-tailed cuckoos, 218
Manx shearwater, 212
peacocks, 191
penguins, 68
petrels, 183
pigeons, 214–15, 221, 224
ravens, 181
swallows, 215
terns, 183–4, 219
wrens, 219
birdsong, 26
Birmingham, 18
Bjarni Herjólffson, 71–2, 98
bluebells, 240
Bonnet, Charles, 214
Bosham, 244–5
Boston, Massachusetts, 212
Bounty mutiny, 212
Brasilia, 58
Bristol Channel, 176
Brittany, 83, 169
Buddhist literature, 103
Buenos Aires, 102, 228
buoys, 26
buttercups, 45
cacti, 46
cairns, 34–5
Cairo, 118
calendars, 141
California, 26, 209
camels, 62
Canary Islands, 195, 241
Canberra, 58
Canute, King, 244
Cape May, New Jersey, 35
Cape Verde, 23
Capote, Truman, 80, 253
Caribbean, 171, 189, 195, 241
caribou, 214
Carpathus, 197
Carthage, 232
Castle Frazer, 143
Catholic Church, 74
celestial equator, 108–10, 120–2, 128, 130, 215, 236
celestial poles, 108–12, 115–20, 125, 234, 256
Channel Islands, 175
Chapman, F. Spencer, 26
Cherry-Garrard, Apsley, 26, 131, 134, 139, 200
Chichester, 56, 244
Chile, 222, 228
Chinese, 103, 115, 121
Christian, Fletcher, 212
Christmas, 83
churches, 60
Cloud Appreciation Society, 206
cloud cover, 97–8
clouds, 69–70, 187–8, 205–10
cirrus, 193, 200, 206–7
cumulus, 178, 207
stratus, 200, 207
Coal Sack, 135
coast hugging, 156
colatitude, 96
Cold Wall, 171
colour compasses, 45
Columbus, Christopher, 235
comets, 133–4
compass rose, 198
compasses, 10–11, 35, 77, 112, 220
constellations, see stars, constellations and galaxies
Cook, Frederick, 22, 28, 70, 195–6
Cook, Captain James, 75, 130, 157, 172
Copenhagen, 227
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 73–4, 127–8
coral, 190
Coriolis Force, 171, 194
Cornwall, 168, 239
Cosmas (Indicopleustes), 182
Council of Nicaea, 141
County Armagh, 40
Creamer, Marvin, 35–6, 140, 158, 165, 172, 179, 182, 193, 195, 209, 237, 240
Cretan labyrinth, 33–4
Critias, 132
Croatia, 204
Cro-Magnons, 155
Dakar, 241
Darwin, Charles, 76
dawn and dusk, 86–9
dead reckoning, 228–30
declination (celestial latitude), 108, 237
deer, 213
degrees, measurement of, 18
dendrochronology, 49–50
deserts, 24, 40–1, 61–7
see also Kalahari Desert; Rub’al-Khali Desert; Sahara Desert
Devon, 239
Dicuil, 77
Dodge, Colonel Richard, 103
dogs, 212–13, 224, 232
doldrums, 195
dolphins, 221
drumlins, 40
Earth
angle of rotation, 78, 80–1, 85, 88
annual orbit, 78, 81–2, 123, 143
atmosphere and colour of sky, 191–2
and celestial sphere, 104–11, 123, 135–6
daily rotation, 78, 81–2, 123, 128
and heliocentric system, 72–5
magnetic field, 134, 219–20
and moon, 143–4, 259
and planets, 126–7
relationship to sun, 72–5, 77–92, 141
spin and Coriolis Force, 171, 194
Easter, 141
echo sounders, 180
echoes, 25–6
eclipses, 232
Ecréhous, 175
Edison, Thomas, 102
Egyptians, ancient, 7, 121, 124, 155, 180
Ehrlich, Gretel, 206
Einstein, Albert, 226
‘emergency navigation’, 248
English Channel, 160, 169
Enki, 10
Equator, 18, 62, 75, 82, 110, 120–2, 147, 160–1
and latitude, 17, 19, 81, 118, 226–7, 234–6
and star rise, 160–1
and sunrise and sunset, 67, 89, 96
see also celestial equator
Equinox days, 80, 87–8, 90–1, 93–4, 233
Erik the Red, 8
Eskimo, see Inuit
Etak, 238
Ethiopia, 30
evolution (natural selection), 6, 22, 225
exploration, 19, 153
Falkland Islands, 23
Fanning, Captain, 21
Fergusson, James, 53
fetch, 165
fires, 34–5, 62
fishing, 152
Fleisher-Harris tide predicting machine, 174
flies, 221
flotsam, 188
fog, 208
footprints, 64
France, 143, 169, 304
frost and thaw cycles, 38
galaxies, see stars, constellations and galaxies
Galileo, 74
Gamama, 39
Gatty, Harold, 23, 180
Gilgamesh, 181
glaciers, 40, 99–100
Gladwin, Thomas, 183, 238
glucose, 44
gnomons, 76–7, 83, 98
goats, 32
Goose Bay, 89
Graham, Stephen, 57
Grand Banks, 171
Grasholm, 239
grasses, 64, 193
graves and gravestones, 59–60
gravitational theory, 75
Great Circles, 112, 221–2
Great Pyramid of Giza, 227
Greeks, ancient, 9, 92, 103–8, 129, 197
greenhouse effect, 191
Greenland, 8, 26, 71, 195, 207, 216
Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA), 108
Greenwich Mean Time, 233
Greenwich Meridian, 17, 19, 81, 226–7
ground effect, 54
guano, 171, 243
Gulf of Mexico, 176
Gulf Stream, 171–2, 178, 195
Gulf War, 77
Gulick, Reverend Luther Halsey, 163–4
Guy de Provins, 11
Gwi tribe, 30, 140
gybing, 202–3
Halley’s comet, 133
Hansel and Gretel, 33
Harrison, John, 231–2
Havaiki, 208
Hawaii, 12, 168, 218, 239
Helen of Troy, 19
heliotropism, 48
Herodotus, 75, 178, 181
Hesiod, 124
Heyerdahl, Thor, 153–4, 222
Hillaby, John, 41
hills, 38–9, 44, 201
Hipparchus, 13, 83, 119, 232
Hoba meteorite, 133
homing instincts, 212
Honolulu, 163, 237
Horse Latitudes, 195
Horus, 7
ibn Fadlan, Ahmad, 157
ice sheets, 40
icebergs, 68
Iceland, 8, 71, 181, 216, 218
Inanna, 10
Incas, 171
India, 38, 53, 115, 124, 182, 239
Indian Ocean, 235
Indonesia, 160
infrasound, 220
interlinium, 139
International Meridian Conference, 227
Intertropical Convergence Zone, 195
Inuit (Eskimo) people, 12, 16, 26, 34, 69–70, 103, 118, 134, 142, 174, 224
inuskuit, 34
Ireland, 76, 218
Irish, early, 121
Irish monks, 77, 218–19
iron oxide, 220–1
Isidore of Seville, 132
Islamic holy days, 141
Isle of Wight, 1, 212
Italy, 204
ivy, 45
Jerusalem, 227
jet lag, 228
jet stream, 228–9
Jiangja, 135
John Paul II, Pope, 74
Julius Caesar, 175
Jupiter, 74, 128–31
Kaho and Po’oi, 240
Kalahari Desert, 29, 39, 119, 124, 140, 142, 205, 209, 213
kamals, 10
Kansas, 80
Karlsen, Leif, 98
kelp, 174, 190
Kelvin, Lord, 174
Kenya, 41
Kepler, Johannes, 74–5, 132
King, Captain, 172
Kingley Vale, 99
kino kino, 203
Kiribati, 185
Kuroshio Current, 172, 178
Labrador current, 171
Lake Rudolph, 41
lakes, 59
landfall, 185–6
landmarks, 16–17, 32, 187
underwater, 190
latitude, 17, 81, 89–90, 226–8, 233–8, 240–1
see also colatitude; declination
lava, 41
lead lines, 180
lee effect, 64, 201
Leonardo da Vinci, 50
Lewis, David, 184–5
Libya, 63, 94
lichens, 53, 55–6, 98
Ligurian Sea, 197
lodestones, 220
London, 17, 19, 24, 58–9, 83, 226, 232
Long Range Desert Group, 62, 77
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 46
longitude, 17, 81, 84, 226–8, 231–3, 237–8, 240
looming, 70
Lucan, 235
luminescence (phosphorescence), 184–5
lunar months, 141
McCarthy, Cormac, 34
McMurdo Sound, 134
Madagascar, 142
Madeira, 167
magnetic sense of direction, 220–1
magnetic storms, 221
Makea Nui Ariki, 185
Manilius, 9
Maoris, 218
maps, 35
marine chronometer, 231–3
Mars, 128, 130–1
Marseilles, 75
Marshall Islands, 163, 169–70
Martianus Capella, 218
Mau Piailug, 217
Mayans, 121
Mecca, 18, 60, 102, 115
Mediterranean region, 76, 124, 155–7, 204, 211
Mediterranean Sea
harbours, 186–7
salinity, 170–1, 179
tides, 175–6
Mercury, 128–9
meteorites, 133
meteorology, see weather forecasting
meteors (shooting stars), 132–3
metre, definition of, 18
Mexico City, 237
mice, 221
Micronesians, 9, 160, 163–4, 168, 172, 217, 238
midday, 84–6, 88, 92–4, 96, 141
Midsummer’s Day, see Summer Solstice
migration, 154, 211–12
bird migrations, 218–20
mile, definition of, 18
Milky Way, 135
Minotaur, 33
Mississippi, river, 5
mist, 207–8
Mithra, 83
moles, 39
Mongolia, 34
monkeys, 221
moon, 63, 74, 138–52, 259
and animal behaviour, 215–16
eclipses, 232
first quarter moon, 145–6, 149
Harvest and Hunter’s Moons, 142
and interlinium, 139
and ‘phase method’, 148–51
phases, 7, 142–6
and ‘tangent method’, 147–8
and tides, 151–2, 176–8
and underwater navigation, 189
mosques, 60
moss, 53–4, 92
moths, 211–12, 215
Motu people, 203
Mount Erebus, 134
Mount Etna, 9
mountains, 204
Mumbai, 237
Mursi tribe, 30
Muslims, 18, 60
myths and legends, 6–7, 33–4, 39, 104–5, 157
see also Norse myths and sagas
Namibia, 133
Nana-Ula, 12
Nansen, Fridtjof, 138, 173
Naples, 107
Narbonne, 197
nasturtiums, 45
natural selection, see evolution
Naumachia, bridge at, 139
navigation, conventions of, 17–20
navigators, status of, 11–12
Necho II, King, 8, 75
Nelson, Richard, 134
New York, 57
New Zealand, 86, 94, 140, 180, 218
Newfoundland, 72, 89, 171, 187
Newton, Isaac, 75
Nikunau, 185
Nile, river, 75, 124, 178, 181
Ningbo, 9
Noah’s flood, 181
Norse myths and sagas, 47, 71–2, 98, 176–7, 181
North Africa, 63
North Pacific Gyre, 188
North Pole, 17–18, 78–9, 81, 84, 88–9, 94, 107–10, 112, 118, 143, 147, 173, 227, 234
North Pole plant, 46
Northern Ireland, 40
Norway, 8, 71, 195, 216
Odyssey, 86–7, 103, 116, 157, 180
Olav the Silent, King, 98
Ordnance Survey, 35
Orinoco Delta, 174–5
Orionid meteor showers, 133
orographic effect, 187
Ostia, 197
Ostiak people, 142
Pacific Islanders, 11, 30, 157, 160–4, 203, 212, 217
see also Micronesians; Polynesians
Pacific Ocean, 21, 166, 180, 188, 190, 209, 222
and luminescence, 184–5
palolo worms, 216
paper industry, 44
Papua New Guinea, 203
Paris, 18, 58
Paris Meridian, 227
parks, 59
parrot fish, 214
paths, 28, 41–2
Pembrokeshire, 212, 239
Pennines, 39
Pentland Firth, 187
Peru, 154
Pharsalus, battle of, 235
pheromones, 223
Phoenicians, 75, 77, 103
phosphorescence, see luminescence
photosynthesis, 44–5
phototropism, 48
physical sensations, 27–8, 166
phytoplankton, 179
Pikelot, 9
pilots, 186–7
Pirsig, Robert M., 5
Pitcairn Island, 212
planets, 126–31
elliptical orbit of, 75
motion of, 127–8
retrograde motion of, 126–7
plants, 43–56, 239–40
and buildings, 60–1
heliotropic, 45
phototropic, 48
underwater, 190
see also trees
Plato, 132
Pliny the Elder, 71, 119, 124, 139, 181, 197, 218
polar exploration, 68
Poles, 67, 80, 96, 107–9, 112, 160–1, 194, 226–7
see also celestial poles; North Pole; South Pole
pollution, 56, 192
light pollution, 102
Polynesia, 192, 222
Polynesian Voyaging Society, 190
Polynesians, 103, 121, 128, 153–4, 160, 172, 190, 208, 240
Pompey, 235
Ponce de León, Juan, 171
pookof, 217
Poole, 169
porpoises, 216–17
Posidonius, 239
‘powder of sympathy’, 232
Preary, Robert, 227
precession of equinoxes, 124–5
Pretor-Pinney, Gavin, 206
Priestley, Joseph, 43
puddles, 41–3, 98
Puget Sound, 26
Puluwat, 9
Pytheas, 75–7, 83, 175, 232–3, 236
Quran, 7, 103
Ra, 72
rabbits, 213, 221
radar, 25, 221
railway stations, 58
rain, 209
rain shadows, 187
rapeseed, 45
Rarotonga, 185
rats, 221
Red Sea, 75
reefs, 21, 180
religious buildings, 60
religious texts, 7
Rhodes, 197
Rhone Valley, 204
Rio de Janeiro, 102
rivers, 39, 59
Roman roads, 35
Rome, 29
Ross Sea, 179
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 10
Royal Geographical Society, 2
Royal Institute of Navigation, 18
Rub’al-Khali Desert, 65
Ruskin, John, 46
safety, 14
Sahara Desert, 32, 61–4, 77, 94, 102, 198, 237
sailing, 154, 202–3
St Lucia, 189
St Malo, 169
St Mary’s Island, 230
St Paul, 97, 181
sand, 64–7, 178, 198, 201
underwater, 189–90
sand dunes, 65–7
sand fleas, 214
sandhoppers, 215
sandstorms, 64
Santiago, 228–9
Sargasso Sea, 188
sastrugi, 69
Satawal, 217
satellite dishes, 59–60
satellite navigation, 11, 35
Saturn, 128, 131
Saturnalia, 83
scale, importance of, 36, 41, 250
Scilly Isles, 230
Scotland, 143, 187
Scott, Captain Robert Falcon, 26–7, 30, 34, 131
Scylax of Caryanda, 186
sea
colour, 178–81
currents, 170–4, 190
depth, 179–80
salinity, 170–1, 179
smell, 23, 198
and luminescence, 184–5
see also swells; tides; waves
sea breezes, 203–4
sea fans, 190
sea fogs, 98
sea room, 156
seabed, 180–1, 189–90
seasickness, 167
seasons, 78–80, 89–90, 131
second, definition of, 29
Second World War, 62, 64, 77
sex, 9–10, 212
sextants, 10, 233–4
Seychelles, 182
Shackleton, Sir Ernest, 40
shadows, 62–3, 83–8, 93, 97–101, 147, 215, 233
Shakespeare, William, 113, 175
Shannon Estuary, 218
sheep, 244
Shetland Islands, 216
shipwrecks, 26, 175, 187, 230–1
Shirase, Nobu, 179
shooting stars, see meteors
Shovell, Sir Cloudesley, 230
Siberia, 142
sight, 22, 68, 240
signposts, 34
Silberbauer, George, 142
Skokholm, 212
sky, colour of, 191–2
Slocum, Joshua, 216
Slovenia, 204
smell, sense of, 23–5, 62, 189–90, 198
snails, 216
snakes, 213
snow, 68–9, 201
snowline, 39
Sobel, Dava, 231
Sol Invictus, 83
solar system, 72–5
Solinus, 218
Solomon Islands, 172–3
Solon, 9
solstices, 90–1, 94
see also Summer Solstice; Winter Solstice
songlines, 27
sounds and hearing, 25–7, 201
South Africa, 46, 138
South America, 153, 222
South Downs, 38, 69, 129
South Pole, 81–2, 84, 88–9, 107–8, 110, 112, 147, 209, 227
spacecraft, 130
Spain, 23, 171
spiders, 21, 223
squid, 102
Sri Lanka, 181
standing stones, 143
star compasses, 161–3
Star Dust crash, 228–9
starlight, 126
stars, 19, 102–25, 135–7, 159–63
and animal orientation, 215, 222
and celestial poles, 111–12
and celestial sphere, 104–11, 123, 135–6, 162–3
and deserts, 62–3
‘heliacal rising’, 124
and high latitudes, 67–8
leading star (lad steorra), 103
pointer stars, 114, 119–20
and precession of equinoxes, 124–5
rising and setting, 120–1, 123–4, 228, 231, 233–4, 236–7
and time, 135–6
twinkling of, 192–3
stars, constellations and galaxies
Acrux, 119
Alkaid, 255
Altair, 124
Andromeda, 7, 136
Arcturus, 124, 236–7, 255
Auriga, 255
Betelgeuse, 122, 255
Boötes, 103
Canopus, 122–3, 236
Capella, 161–2, 237
Cassiopeia, 117
Castor, 19
Centaur, 119–20
Cygnus, 255
Deneb, 124
False Cross, 120
Gacrux, 119
Gemini, 19, 256
Hadar, 119
Kocab, 255
Leo, 232
Milky Way, 135
Mintaka, 122
Navigator’s Triangle, 124
Orion, 106, 121, 124, 133, 236
Orion’s belt, 122, 159, 163
Pegasus, 255
Perseus, 7
Pleiades, 103, 124
Plough, 114–18, 136, 258
Polaris (North Star), 63, 68, 106, 109–10, 113–18, 120–3, 234–6, 255, 258
Procyon, 256
Rigel, 122
Rigil Kent, 119
Sagittarius, 132, 135
Saiph, 255
Scorpius, 106
Sirius, 106, 122, 124
Southern Cross, 63, 118–20, 135, 234
Ursa Major (Great Bear), 92, 103, 115
Ursa Minor, 255
Vega, 124
stick charts, 169
Stonehenge, 87
Strabo, 76, 83
Strait of Messina, 157
Straits of Gibraltar, 171
Sudan, 9
suicides, 221
Summer Solstice (Midsummer’s Day), 67, 80–2, 87–90, 94, 236
sun, 36–7, 71–101
and ancient journeys, 71–2, 75–7, 97–8
and animal orientation, 214–15, 221–2, 224
and deserts, 62–3
and moisture levels, 41–2, 54
and moon, 144–6
and plants, 43–6, 49–50, 52–4
relationship to Earth, 72–5, 77–92, 141
sun’s arc, 92–101, 254
sun’s rays, 185
and time, 29–30
and towns, 58–9
and underwater navigation, 189
and ‘watch method’, 254
sun compasses, 77
sundials, 29, 76, 197
sunrise and sunset, 89–90, 92–3, 96, 159, 228, 231
sunstone (solarsteinn), 98
‘survival navigation’, 13–14, 248
Surya, 53
Sweden, 44, 195
swells, 165–70, 185, 194, 240
Sydney, 234
Syria, 236
Tahiti, 12, 154, 218
Tahitians, 212, 235
Tasmania, 182
taste, 24–5
tattoos, 212
Taylor, E G R, 86
telescopes, 74
tennis courts, 60
termites, 223
Tessore, 53
testicles, 166
Thales of Miletus, 105
Theseus, 33–4
Thomas, Stephen, 217
Tiberius Caesar, 139
tides, 151–2, 174–8
spring and neap tides, 151
tidal flow and Rule of Twelfths, 177
Tikopia, 172
time, 29–30, 141–2
animals and, 216
and longitude, 231–3
and stars, 135–6
tombs, 60
Tonga, 240
towns, 56–61
trail blazing, 34–5
Treasure Island, 213
tree rings, 49–50
tree species
palm, 239
pine, 44
redwood, 209–10
silver birch, 54–5
spruce, 44
thorn, 47
yew, 99
trees, 37, 44, 46–51, 64, 98, 194, 239, 242–3
deciduous, 47
evergreen, 47
fallen, 51–2
felled, 49–50
and lichens, 56
and moss, 54–5
and ‘Tick Effect’, 49
Tropic of Cancer, 81–2, 85–6, 89, 93
Tropic of Capricorn, 81–2, 86, 94
Tropics, 82, 86, 97, 112, 194
Tuamoto Islands, 208
Tuareg, 32, 61–3, 102, 237–8, 254
Tucson, Arizona, 46
Turkey, 115, 155–6
Twain, Mark, 5
Tyndall, John, 191
underwater navigation, 189–90
Underwood, Ben, 26
United States of America, 9, 46, 85, 142, 171, 201, 212
Ure, river, 39
Venezuela, 174
Venice, 176
Venus, 128–30
Vikings, 8, 71–2, 77, 98, 103, 157, 209, 216, 235
Wales, 212
walruses, 70, 223
Warao people, 174
Ward, Captain, 166
Washington DC, 227
Washington state, 200–1
water, 36–7, 40
colour, 178–81
depth, 179–80
salinity, 170–1, 179
temperature, 240
and underwater navigation, 189–90
and wind, 164–9
see also sea
water clocks, 29, 197
waves, 165–7, 169–70, 176, 189, 194, 240
see also swells
weather, 191, 193, 195, 198–200, 205
weather forecasting, 193, 206
weather fronts, 199–200
weathering, 59, 201
Wensleydale, 39
whales, 216–17, 239
Wilde, Oscar, 242
wildebeest, 214
wind, 36–7, 194–205
and animal behaviour, 223
and deserts, 64–7
direction, 195–203, 205, 207–8, 216
local winds, 203–5
and plants and trees, 45, 50–2
and point of sail, 202–3
prevailing, 43, 50, 59, 201
and snow, 68–9
and water, 164–9
wind compasses, 198
wind vanes, 168
winds
anabatic and katabatic, 204
Bora, 204
Boreas, 197, 204, 236
Circius, 197
Föhn, 204–5
Mistral, 204
monsoon, 196
Niqiq, 69
Trade Winds, 171, 195
Uangnaq, 69
Winkler, Captain, 164
Winter Solstice (Midwinter’s Day), 80, 83, 87–90
Wordsworth, William, 113
X Club, 191
Xhosa people, 138
yardangs, 65
Zacuto, 233
zodiacal light, 133

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